A comparison of the medical lethality of suicide attempts in bipolar and major depressive disorders.
ABSTRACT Among mood disorders, bipolar disorder (BPD) is often noted to involve the highest rates of suicide attempts and possibly of completion. This study sought to determine whether suicide attempters with BPD exhibit suicide attempts with higher lethality than attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to explore differences in clinical features associated with suicidal acts.
Mood disordered suicide attempters were interviewed about Axis I and II diagnoses, lifetime history of suicide attempts, suicidal intent, suicidal ideation, the medical lethality of their most severe suicide attempt, severity of depression, hopelessness, lifetime aggression, and impulsivity.
The maximum lethality of suicidal acts tended to be higher among BPD attempters compared with those with MDD. However, there were no differences in the number of suicide attempts, intent to die or suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters with BPD reported higher levels of aggression and impulsivity but less hopelessness compared with MDD attempters. These differences could not be explained by Cluster B personality disorder comorbidity. Of note, within the BPD group, but not the MDD group, males reported suicidal acts with higher lethality. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk for more lethal suicide attempts is associated with BPD and male sex and that bipolar males appear to be especially vulnerable to these behaviors.
Males with BPD make more lethal suicide attempts than females with BPD, an effect not observed among the MDD sample. Our findings suggest that higher rates of suicidal behavior in BPD may be due to a specific effect of BPD on males, leading to more dangerous suicidal behaviors. This effect, together with the larger proportion of males in the BPD group compared with the MDD group may lead to higher rates of reported attempted and completed suicide.
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ABSTRACT: Objective Identifying bipolar patients at high-suicide risk is a major health issue. To improve their identification, we compared dimensional and neuropsychological profile of bipolar patients with or without history of suicide attempt, taking into account suicidal severity (i.e. admission to intensive ward).MethodA total of 343 adult euthymic bipolar out-patients recruited in the French FondaMental Advanced Centres of Expertise for Bipolar Disorder were divided into three subgroups: 214 patients without history of suicide attempt, 88 patients with past history of non-severe suicide attempt and 41 patients with past history of severe suicide attempt. General intellectual functioning, speed of information processing, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency and executive functioning were assessed.ResultsSevere suicide attempters had lower affective intensity and lability than non-severe attempters. Severe suicide attempters outperformed non-severe attempters for verbal learning and non-attempters for Stroop word reading part after adjustment for study centre, age, gender, educational level, antipsychotics use, depression score, anxious and addictive comorbidities.Conclusion Neuropsychological tasks commonly used to assess bipolar patients do not seem accurate to identify suicide attempters in euthymic patients. In the future, decision-making and emotional recognition tasks should be assessed. Moreover, clinical and neuropsychological profiles should be considered together to better define suicidal risk.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 08/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: African-American women are at high risk for suicide ideation and suicide attempts and use emergency psychiatric services at disproportionately high rates relative to men and other ethnic groups. However, suicide death rates are low for this population. Cultural variables in the African-American community may promote resilience and prevent fatal suicidal behavior among African-American women. The present study evaluated self-reported reasons for living as a protective factor against suicidal intent and suicide attempt lethality in a sample of African-American female suicide attempters (n = 150). Regression analyses revealed that reasons for living were negatively associated with suicidal intent, even after controlling for spiritual well-being and symptoms of depression. These results indicate that the ability to generate and contemplate reasons for valuing life may serve as a protective characteristic against life-threatening suicidal behavior among African-American women. Implications for research and clinical practice are further discussed.Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 07/2014; · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Lethality of suicidal attempt provides useful information regarding the behavior. There is a perceived need for a clinically useful scale that can be easily adapted to various methods and circumstances of attempt. Aims: The study intended to develop and test utility of a scale for measuring lethality that can reflect overall clinical observation taking into account various indicators of lethality and which can be used across clinical scenarios involving different methods. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in a hospital. Materials and Methods: The scale for assessment of lethality of suicide attempt (SALSA) has two components: The first component has four items indicating seriousness of the attempt and its likely consequences and the second component is the global impression of lethality. All the items are scored from 1 to 5, higher scores suggestive of increased lethality. SALSA was used to evaluate lethality of 82 consecutive suicide attempters; and it was compared with lethality of suicide attempt rating scale (LSARS) and risk-rescue rating scale. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, t-test, analysis of variance, Cronbach's alpha, binary logistic regression. Result: There was significant correlation of SALSA score with that of LSARS (r: 0.89) and risk score of risk-rescue rating (r: 0.93, P < 0.001); and negative correlation with rescue score (r: −0.569; P < 0.001). Internal consistency reliability of SALSA was high (Cronbach's alpha: 0.94). Lethality scores of SALSA differentiated known groups with different lethality, e.g. deceased and survived; attempters with different levels of medical intervention: In-patient only, intensive care, ventilator support. SALSA score significantly predicted the lethal outcome (odds ratio: 3.2, confidence interval: 1.12-8.98). Conclusion: SALSA is a useful instrument for assessment of lethality of suicidal behaviors during clinical evaluations considering the ease of administration, its ability to differentiate clinical groups with known variations of lethality and clinical outcomes.Indian Journal of Psychiatry 10/2014; 56(4):337-343.