A comparison of the medical lethality of suicide attempts in bipolar and major depressive disorders.
ABSTRACT Among mood disorders, bipolar disorder (BPD) is often noted to involve the highest rates of suicide attempts and possibly of completion. This study sought to determine whether suicide attempters with BPD exhibit suicide attempts with higher lethality than attempters with major depressive disorder (MDD) and to explore differences in clinical features associated with suicidal acts.
Mood disordered suicide attempters were interviewed about Axis I and II diagnoses, lifetime history of suicide attempts, suicidal intent, suicidal ideation, the medical lethality of their most severe suicide attempt, severity of depression, hopelessness, lifetime aggression, and impulsivity.
The maximum lethality of suicidal acts tended to be higher among BPD attempters compared with those with MDD. However, there were no differences in the number of suicide attempts, intent to die or suicidal ideation. Suicide attempters with BPD reported higher levels of aggression and impulsivity but less hopelessness compared with MDD attempters. These differences could not be explained by Cluster B personality disorder comorbidity. Of note, within the BPD group, but not the MDD group, males reported suicidal acts with higher lethality. Multivariate analyses suggested that risk for more lethal suicide attempts is associated with BPD and male sex and that bipolar males appear to be especially vulnerable to these behaviors.
Males with BPD make more lethal suicide attempts than females with BPD, an effect not observed among the MDD sample. Our findings suggest that higher rates of suicidal behavior in BPD may be due to a specific effect of BPD on males, leading to more dangerous suicidal behaviors. This effect, together with the larger proportion of males in the BPD group compared with the MDD group may lead to higher rates of reported attempted and completed suicide.
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated suicide risk and its correlates among major affective disorder patients in China and examined possible risk factors for future suicide among individuals with major affective disorder to inform appropriate interventions and management approaches to minimize and prevent suicide. A total of 1478 major affective disorder patients were consecutively examined in 13 mental health centers in China. The patients' socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded using a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and suicide risk was assessed by the suicide risk module of the MINI. Of the patients, 963 (65.2%) were in the nonsuicidal risk group and 515 (34.8%) were in the suicidal risk group. Compared to major depressive disorder patients, bipolar disorder patients had higher suicide risk levels (χ2=10.0, df=1, P=0.002); however, there were no statistically significant differences (χ2=2.6, df=1, P=0.1) between bipolar disorder-I and bipolar disorder-II patients. Suicide risk factors were associated with 6 variables in major affective disorder patients, as follows: male gender, unemployed, more frequent depressive episodes (>4 in the past year), depressive episodes with suicidal ideation and attempts, depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms, and no current antidepressant use. Most of the data were retrospectively collected and, therefore, subject to recall bias. This study suggested that bipolar disorder patients have a higher suicide risk than major depressive disorder patients. The factors that were significantly associated with suicide risk may aid in identifying major affective disorder patients who are at risk for future suicidal behavior.Journal of affective disorders 11/2013; · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the impact of psychotropic drugs on suicide and suicidal behaviors in bipolar disorders. A Medline search of articles published from January 1960 to January 2013 was performed using relevant keywords to identify studies examining the relationship of psychotropic drugs to suicidal behaviors. The publications were further reviewed for relevant references and information. Additionally, the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation Research website was searched. The available studies used differing methodologies, making interpretation of the findings difficult. Studies suggest that antidepressants may increase suicidal risk in bipolar disorder, this possibly being related to the induction of broadly defined mixed states. There is no evidence that antiepileptic drugs as a class increase suicidal risk in patients with bipolar disorder. Only lithium provides convincing data that it reduces the risk of suicide over the long term. There is little known regarding the effects of antipsychotics, as well as anti-anxiety and hypnotic drugs, on suicidal behavior. The available evidence for the impact of psychotropics on suicidal risk in patients with bipolar disorder is largely methodologically flawed and, except for a few instances, clinically not useful at this point. Adequately powered, prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to assess the impact of each class of psychotropic and each psychotropic as well as common combination therapies. Until such studies have been carried out, clinicians are urged to exercise caution in using these drugs and rely on the traditional means of carefully assessing and monitoring patients with bipolar disorder who are at high risk for suicide.Bipolar Disorders 07/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Suicide is highly prevalent among individuals with bipolar disorder and understanding the factors that increase risk for suicide may help to develop targeted interventions to prevent attempts. Impulsivity is thought to be an influential factor associated with suicidality and is also discussed as a key construct of bipolar disorder. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the current evidence to examine the association between impulsivity and suicidality in bipolar disorder. PsycInfo, Medline, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for articles published up until March 2012. Papers were included if they assessed an adult sample of individuals with bipolar disorders, focused on suicidality (ideation with intent to die, suicide attempts, or completion), and used a validated measure to determine impulsivity. Sixteen papers were identified. Contrary to widespread belief, we found (i) a very inconsistent picture of results including positive, negative, and insignificant associations between impulsivity and suicidality; and (ii) some studies do not take into account important aspects such as state-trait or measurement issues. The link between suicidality and impulsivity is less straightforward than often assumed. Drawing clear conclusions about the association is hampered by factors such as inconsistencies in defining suicidality, measuring impulsivity, and differentiating between impulsivity as a personality trait and impulsivity as a state (e.g., a consequence of substance use or premeditation of the attempt). We suggest that the association is less direct and that psychological models (e.g., Joiner's theory of suicidality) can help foster a more in-depth understanding regarding the relationship.Bipolar Disorders 07/2013; · 4.62 Impact Factor