Spindle cell tumors of the pleura: differential diagnosis.
ABSTRACT Spindle cell tumors that arise in or metastasize to the pleura must be thoroughly evaluated to arrive at a definitive diagnosis. Malignant mesothelioma is the most common tumor arising in the pleura, but metastatic tumors to the pleura occur more frequently. Additionally, many tumors arising in the lung and surrounding tissues involve the pleura. It is crucial to arrive at a correct diagnosis since many of these neoplasms show different prognoses and require varying treatment modalities. Sarcomatoid malignant mesothelioma is a rare tumor that arises in the pleura, and can be confused with numerous tumors arising in or metastasizing to the pleura, including synovial sarcoma, metastatic sarcomatoid carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, thymoma, renal cell carcinoma, localized fibrous tumor, leiomyosarcoma, and other types of sarcoma. Desmoplastic malignant mesothelioma is a fibrous sarcomatoid variant of malignant mesothelioma, and is occasionally mistaken for chronic fibrous pleurisy. Here, we review morphological, clinical, histological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and molecular methods that aid in the diagnosis of spindle cell tumors of the pleura, and we provide specific examples of patients in which this multi-modal approach proved to be helpful.
Article: Rare pleural tumors.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Primary pleural tumors other than mesothelioma account for fewer than 1% of all lung cancers, and consequently they pose diagnostic and management challenges. Their treatment must be targeted toward the specific tumor type and is often quite different from the treatment for mesothelioma or metastases. Despite the best efforts at diagnosing and treating these tumors, the prognosis associated with some of the benign and many of the malignant variants of these tumors remains poor. In this review, we describe the radiologic and pathologic features of the less common primary pleural tumors and propose a diagnostic approach to their evaluation.Clinics in chest medicine 03/2013; 34(1):113-36. DOI:10.1016/j.ccm.2012.12.001 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of mesothelioma is not always straightforward, despite known immunohistochemical markers and other diagnostic techniques. One reason for the difficulty is that extrapleural tumors resembling mesothelioma may have several possible etiologies, especially in cases with no meaningful history of amphibole asbestos exposure. When the diagnosis of mesothelioma is based on histologic features alone, primary mesotheliomas may resemble various primary or metastatic cancers that have directly invaded the serosal membranes. Some of these metastatic malignancies, particularly carcinomas and sarcomas of the pleura, pericardium and peritoneum, may undergo desmoplastic reaction in the pleura, thereby mimicking mesothelioma, rather than the primary tumor. Encasement of the lung by direct spread or metastasis, termed pseudomesotheliomatous spread, occurs with several other primary cancer types, including certain late-stage tumors from genetic cancer syndromes exhibiting chromosomal instability. Although immunohistochemical staining patterns differentiate most carcinomas, lymphomas, and mestastatic sarcomas from mesotheliomas, specific genetic markers in tumor or somatic tissues have been recently identified that may also distinguish these tumor types from asbestos-related mesothelioma. A registry for genetic screening of mesothelioma cases would help lead to improvements in diagnostic criteria, prognostic accuracy and treatment efficacy, as well as improved estimates of primary mesothelioma incidence and of background rates of cancers unrelated to asbestos that might be otherwise mistaken for mesothelioma. This information would also help better define the dose-response relationships for mesothelioma and asbestos exposure, as well as other risk factors for mesothelioma and other mesenchymal or advanced metastatic tumors that may be indistinguishable by histology and staining characteristics.Frontiers in Genetics 05/2014; 5:151. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00151
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to re-evaluate TLE-1 staining and the molecular detection methods of SS18-SSX transcripts for synovial sarcoma. We analyzed TLE-1 expression in 50 molecularly confirmed synovial sarcomas and 85 other soft tissue tumors with three previously published scoring systems. In the present study, 39 to 43 synovial sarcomas showed TLE-1 nuclear staining, whereas 9-15 of 85 other soft tissue tumors showed TLE-1 staining (P < 0.0001). The specificities of strong TLE-1 staining were 100%, 97.6% and 98.8%. The positive likelihood ratio of moderate and strong TLE-1 nuclear expression was >10 in all three scoring systems. There was no difference in TLE-1 staining between different subtypes of synovial sarcoma (P > 0.05). Based on a comparison between conventional reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), quantitative RT-PCR is a more sensitive method than conventional RT-PCR and FISH to detect t(X;18). A positive correlation between TLE-1 staining and SS18-SSX translocation was detected by conventional PCR (P < 0.05). In conclusion, although all three scoring systems could differentiate synovial sarcoma from other soft tissue tumors, diffuse moderate to severe intensity tumors showed the highest specificity in the diagnosis of synovial sarcoma.Pathology International 12/2013; 63(12):573-80. DOI:10.1111/pin.12113 · 1.59 Impact Factor