Article

Identification and characterization of leukemia stem cells in murine MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
Cancer Cell (Impact Factor: 23.89). 11/2006; 10(4):257-68. DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.08.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using a mouse model of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induced by the MLL-AF9 oncogene, we demonstrate that colony-forming cells (CFCs) in the bone marrow and spleen of leukemic mice are also leukemia stem cells (LSCs). These self-renewing cells (1) are frequent, accounting for 25%-30% of myeloid lineage cells at late-stage disease; (2) generate a phenotypic, morphologic, and functional leukemia cell hierarchy; (3) express mature myeloid lineage-specific antigens; and (4) exhibit altered microenvironmental interactions by comparison with the oncogene-immortalized CFCs that initiated the disease. Therefore, the LSCs responsible for sustaining, expanding, and regenerating MLL-AF9 AML are downstream myeloid lineage cells, which have acquired an aberrant Hox-associated self-renewal program as well as other biologic features of hematopoietic stem cells.

1 Bookmark
 · 
121 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Functional differences between healthy progenitor and cancer initiating cells may provide unique opportunities for targeted therapy approaches. Hematopoietic stem cells are tightly controlled by a network of CDK inhibitors that govern proliferation and prevent stem cell exhaustion. Loss of Inca1 led to an increased number of short-term hematopoietic stem cells in older mice, but Inca1 seems largely dispensable for normal hematopoiesis. On the other hand, Inca1-deficiency enhanced cell cycling upon cytotoxic stress and accelerated bone marrow exhaustion. Moreover, AML1-ETO9a-induced proliferation was not sustained in Inca1-deficient cells in vivo. As a consequence, leukemia induction and leukemia maintenance were severely impaired in Inca1-/- bone marrow cells. The re-initiation of leukemia was also significantly inhibited in absence of Inca1-/- in MLL-AF9- and c-myc/BCL2-positive leukemia mouse models. These findings indicate distinct functional properties of Inca1 in normal hematopoietic cells compared to leukemia initiating cells. Such functional differences might be used to design specific therapy approaches in leukemia.
    PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e115578. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115578 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A fundamental challenge for cancer therapy is that each tumor contains a highly heterogeneous cell population whose structure and mechanistic underpinnings remain incompletely understood. Recent advances in single-cell gene expression profiling have created new possibilities to characterize this heterogeneity and to dissect the potential intra-cancer cellular hierarchy. Here, we apply single-cell analysis to systematically characterize the heterogeneity within leukemic cells using the MLL-AF9 driven mouse model of acute myeloid leukemia. We start with fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis with seven surface markers, and extend by using a multiplexing quantitative polymerase chain reaction approach to assay the transcriptional profile of a panel of 175 carefully selected genes in leukemic cells at the single-cell level. By employing a set of computational tools we find striking heterogeneity within leukemic cells. Mapping to the normal hematopoietic cellular hierarchy identifies two distinct subtypes of leukemic cells; one similar to granulocyte/monocyte progenitors and the other to macrophage and dendritic cells. Further functional experiments suggest that these subtypes differ in proliferation rates and clonal phenotypes. Finally, co-expression network analysis reveals similarities as well as organizational differences between leukemia and normal granulocyte/monocyte progenitor networks. Overall, our single-cell analysis pinpoints previously uncharacterized heterogeneity within leukemic cells and provides new insights into the molecular signatures of acute myeloid leukemia.
    Genome Biology 12/2014; 5(525). DOI:10.1186/s13059-014-0525-9 · 10.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disease caused by aberrant proliferation and/or differentiation of myeloid progenitors. However, only ~65% of AML patients respond to induction chemotherapy and the overall survival rate for AML remains low (~24% for 5-year survival). The conventional view suggests that ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters contribute to treatment failure due to their drug-effluxing capabilities. This might be overly simplistic. Some ABC transporters export endogenous substrates that have defined roles in normal hematopoietic progenitors. It is conceivable that these substances also provide an advantage to leukemic progenitors. This review will highlight how certain endogenous substrates impact normal hematopoietic cells and suggest that ABC transporters facilitate export of these substances to affect both normal hematopoietic and leukemic progenitors. For example, the ability to export certain endogenous ligands may facilitate leukemogenesis by modifying leukemic progenitor cell proliferation or survival. If so, the addition of ABC transporter inhibitors to traditional chemotherapy might improve therapeutic efficacy by not just increasing intracellular drug accumulation but also blocking the beneficial effects ABC transporter ligands have on cell survival. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Preview

Download
3 Downloads
Available from