Multilocus genetic interactions and response to efavirenz-containing regimens: an adult AIDS clinical trials group study.
ABSTRACT For the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor efavirenz, variant drug transporter gene ABCB1 may predict virologic response but not plasma efavirenz exposure. Conversely, variant drug metabolizing enzyme gene CYP2B6 predicts greater plasma efavirenz exposure but not virologic response. We examined whether long-term responses to efavirenz, and/or plasma efavirenz exposure, are better predicted by multilocus genetic interactions than by individual polymorphisms.
We studied antiretroviral-naïve study participants randomized to receive efavirenz (with or without nelfinavir) plus two nucleoside analogues in study ACTG 384, and who had DNA available for analysis. Participants were followed up for up to 3 years. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP2C19 were identified. Gene-gene interactions were identified using multifactor dimensionality reduction.
Among 340 efavirenz recipients, higher efavirenz AUC24 h values were associated with a single locus model involving CYP2B6 516G>T (73% accuracy; P<0.001). This was also the best model among blacks (69% accuracy; P<0.001), whereas among whites the best model involved a gene-gene interaction between CYP2B6 516G>T and ABCB1 2677G>T (82% accuracy, P<0.001). Among 155 participants who received efavirenz without nelfinavir, virologic failure was associated with a two-locus interaction between ABCB1 2677G>T and CYP2B6 516G>T (65% accuracy, P<0.001). Toxicity failure was best predicted by an interaction between ABCB1 2677G>T and ABCB1 3435C>T (71% accuracy, P<0.001).
Multilocus genetic interactions between variant drug metabolism and transporter genes may predict efavirenz pharmacokinetics and treatment responses. This finding may have implications for better individualizing antiretroviral therapy.
SourceAvailable from: José Vicente Fernández-Montero[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Introduction: Human genetic testing is rapidly entering into most medical disciplines, mainly as a way to predict hereditary conditions including predisposition to cancers or degenerative diseases. Another area of interest for human genomics is to ascertain the therapeutic effect and prevent potential toxicities and/or drug-drug interactions of medication. Areas covered: Several human genotypes have been associated with differences in the metabolism and transport of antiretroviral agents that ultimately affect drug exposure. The accelerated discovery of new gene mutations and polymorphisms that influence the effects of antiretroviral drugs provides a unique opportunity for a personalized medicine approach in the management of lifelong HIV therapy. Expert opinion: Integration of human genomic screening into HIV clinical management will be cost-effective, maximizing the benefit of drugs with the lowest risk of side effects for a given patient.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 06/2014; DOI:10.1517/17425255.2014.930128 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The fixed-dose combination efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir (EFV/FTC/TDF) is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV. We report the case of a 40-year-old female with a history of HIV acquired through heterosexual contact who initiated EFV/FTC/TDF. Hepatitis B and C serologies were negative, CD4 cell count was 253 cells per cubic millimeter (15.8%), and HIV viral load was 67,373 copies per milliliter. Eight months later she developed transaminitis and severe right upper quadrant pain. Neither illicit drug abuse nor hepatotoxic medication such as acetaminophen was reported. After evaluation including negative acute viral hepatitis studies, EFV/FTC/TDF was discontinued; both her transaminitis and pain resolved. Hepatotoxicity is most often associated with efavirenz. Rarely, fulminant hepatic failure occurs. Efavirenz-related hepatotoxicity is thought to result from a cellular self-digestion process known as autophagy. This is the first report to our knowledge of EFV/FTC/TDF-related hepatotoxicity.AIDS patient care and STDs 08/2013; DOI:10.1089/apc.2013.0008 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: This article evaluates which genetic factors are involved in CNS toxicity related to long-term treatment with efavirenz (EFV) standard doses and their relationship with plasma concentrations. Patients & methods: A total of 119 HIV-positive patients, in which 1350 EFV plasma concentrations, 68 SNPs and 14 EFV-related adverse effects (AEs) were analyzed. Results: Overall, 32.77% of patients reported CNS toxicity and 8.40% had concentrations above the therapeutic range. A correlation was mainly found between patients with global CNS AEs and high EFV maximum steady-state plasma concentration (p = 1.47 × 10(-6)). A preliminary analysis confirmed that CYP2B6*6 (516G>T and 785A>G) was the most highly correlated (p = 0.005) with AEs and high plasma concentrations. In a second analysis adjusting for maximum steady-state plasma concentration, suggestive genetic associations were found between BCRP 421C>A, MRP1 816G>A, 5-HT2A 102C>T and different AEs. Conclusion: The finding of the involvement of these SNPs in EFV toxicity opens the door for further studies to confirm their validity and for their application in the future clinical practice. Original submitted 18 February 2013; Revision submitted 17 May 2013.Pharmacogenomics 07/2013; 14(10):1167-78. DOI:10.2217/pgs.13.111 · 3.43 Impact Factor