Effect of butyrylcholinesterase genotype on the response to rivastigmine or donepezil in younger patients with Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT A randomized double-blind trial evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of rivastigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and donepezil, an AChE-selective inhibitor, in patients with Alzheimer's disease over a 2-year period. A retrospective analysis showed differential responses to cholinesterase inhibitors (ChE-Is) in patients younger than 75 years. This analysis investigated the effect of BuChE genotype on response to ChE-I therapy in these patients. In a retrospective analysis, patients younger than 75 who had consented to pharmacogenetic analysis were divided into groups according to BuChE genotype. Efficacy measures were the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Global Deterioration Scale (GDS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADCS-ADL). Changes on efficacy parameters were calculated for rivastigmine-treated and donepezil-treated patients in both groups. Of 114 (34.1%) patients younger than 75 who were successfully assessed for BuChE genotype, 76 (66.7%) were homozygous for wild-type BuChE, and 38 (33.3%) carried at least one BuChE K-variant allele. Wild-type BuChE carriers showed significantly greater responses to rivastigmine than to donepezil on the SIB, ADCS-ADL, GDS and NPI. No significant between-treatment differences in efficacy were observed in BuChE K-variant carriers, although adverse events were more frequent in rivastigmine-treated patients. In this retrospective analysis, Alzheimer's disease patients younger than 75 with wild-type BuChE exhibited differential efficacy to rivastigmine, while BuChE K-variant carriers experienced similar long-term treatment effects with both agents. These differences may reflect rivastigmine's ability to inhibit BuChE and AChE.
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ABSTRACT: Cholinesterase enzymes metabolize acetylcholine (ACh). Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in damaged but functional cholinergic synapses in the brains of dementia patients increases intrasynaptic ACh. This enhances cholinergic neurotransmission and improves cognition. There is a window of opportunity for this symptomatic treatment effect that opens and closes during the course of dementia depending on when significant synaptic damage occurs. Cholinesterases also metabolize extrasynaptic ACh with butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) apparently playing the major dynamic role in extracellular ACh homeostasis. Extracellular ACh plays a key regulatory role in controlling the reactivity and functional states of non-excitable cells, such as neuroglia. Current inhibitors of cholinesterases (ChEIs) have similar effects on intrasynaptic ACh, but differ markedly in abilities to upregulate extracellular AChE, inhibit BuChE, and influence the fibrilization of amyloid-β peptides. Importantly, ChEIs can have detrimental disease modifying effects in particular individuals characterized by age, gender, and genotype. In contrast, preliminary evidence suggests that the right dose of the right ChEI in the right patient might significantly slow the progression of neurodegenerative processes. For a particular patient, understanding the condition of cholinergic synapses and the reactivity and functional status of neuroglia could allow administration of appropriate ChEI therapy for symptomatic and disease modifying benefits.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 11/2014; DOI:10.3233/JAD-142268 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following the completion of a 20-week, open-label study of the safety and efficacy of liquid rivastigmine for adolescents with Down syndrome, 5 of the 10 adolescents in the clinical trial continued long-term rivastigmine therapy and 5 did not. After an average period of 38 months, all 10 subjects returned for a follow-up assessment to determine the safety and efficacy of long-term rivastigmine use. Rivastigmine was well tolerated and overall health appeared to be unaffected by long-term rivastigmine use. Performance change on cognitive and language measures administered at the termination of the open-label clinical trial was compared between the two groups. No between-group difference in median performance change across the long-term period was found, suggesting that the long-term use of rivastigmine does not improve cognitive and language performance. However, two subjects demonstrated remarkable improvement in adaptive function over the long-term period. Both subjects had received long-term rivastigmine therapy. The discussion addresses the challenge of assessing cognitive change in clinical trials using adolescents with Down syndrome as subjects and the use of group versus individual data to evaluate the relevance of medication effects.Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 12/2010; 20(6):517-20. DOI:10.1089/cap.2009.0099 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to compare the effects of different cholinesterase inhibitors on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and protein levels, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. AD patients aged 50-85 years were randomized to open-label treatment with oral rivastigmine, donepezil or galantamine for 13 weeks. AChE and BuChE activities were assayed by Ellman's colorimetric method. Protein levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Primary analyses were based on the Completer population (randomized patients who completed Week 13 assessments). 63 patients were randomized to treatment. Rivastigmine was associated with decreased AChE activity by 42.6% and decreased AChE protein levels by 9.3%, and decreased BuChE activity by 45.6% and decreased BuChE protein levels by 21.8%. Galantamine decreased AChE activity by 2.1% and BuChE activity by 0.5%, but increased AChE protein levels by 51.2% and BuChE protein levels by 10.5%. Donepezil increased AChE and BuChE activities by 11.8% and 2.8%, respectively. Donepezil caused a 215.2% increase in AChE and 0.4% increase in BuChE protein levels. Changes in mean AChE-Readthrough/Synaptic ratios, which might reflect underlying neurodegenerative processes, were 1.4, 0.6, and 0.4 for rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine, respectively. The findings suggest pharmacologically-induced differences between rivastigmine, donepezil and galantamine. Rivastigmine provides sustained inhibition of AChE and BuChE, while donepezil and galantamine do not inhibit BuChE and are associated with increases in CSF AChE protein levels. The clinical implications require evaluation.Current Alzheimer research 03/2009; 6(1):4-14. DOI:10.2174/156720509787313961 · 3.80 Impact Factor