Reported alcohol consumption and cognitive decline: The northern Manhattan study.
ABSTRACT Moderate alcohol intake may slow cognitive decline, and both vascular and neurodegenerative mechanisms have been implicated.
We examined reported alcohol intake and cognitive decline in a community-based cohort of Hispanic, black and white individuals (n = 1,428). The role of the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 (APOE4) allele as a modifier was also studied.
Reported drinking was as follows: 300 participants (21%) were 'never' drinkers, 622 (44%) 'past' drinkers, 145 (10%) reported taking less than 1 drink weekly, 330 (23%) 1 drink weekly up to 2 daily and 31 (2%) more than 2 drinks daily. A positive relationship was seen between reported alcohol intake and cognition. Drinking less than 1 drink a week (p = 0.09), between 1 drink weekly up to 2 drinks daily (p = 0.001) and more than 2 drinks daily (p = 0.003) were associated with less cognitive decline on the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status compared to never drinkers. This dose-response relationship was not modified by the presence of an APOE4 allele in a subsample.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Clinton B Wright, Nov 07, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Nae-Yuh Wang
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- "Although each domain can be characterized as a conceptually distinct unit, their functions are highly interrelated (Moscovitch, 1992). Many studies use global or aggregated composite measures of cognition (Bond et al., 2005; Cervilla et al., 2000; den Heijer et al., 2004; Elwood et al., 1999; Espeland et al., 2005; Flicker et al., 2005; Galanis et al., 2000; Lang et al., 2007; Launer et al., 1996; Leroi et al., 2002; McGuire et al., 2007; Wright et al., 2006). Such measures of global mental status or tests of general intelligence show good reliability and encompass a variety of cognitive constructs but are not as sensitive to domainspecific measures of cognition (Leroi, Sheppard, & Lyketsos, 2002; Lyketsos, Chen, & Anthony, 1999). "
ABSTRACT: The association of alcohol consumption with performance in different cognitive domains has not been well studied. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study was used to examine associations between prospectively collected information about alcohol consumption ascertained on multiple occasions starting at age 55 years on average with domain-specific cognition at age 72 years. Cognitive variables measured phonemic and semantic fluency, attention, verbal memory, and global cognition. Controlling for age, hypertension, smoking status, sex, and other cognitive variables, higher average weekly quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in midlife were associated with lower phonemic fluency. There were no associations with four other measures of cognitive function. With respect to frequency of alcohol intake, phonemic fluency was significantly better among those who drank three to four alcoholic beverages per week as compared with daily or almost daily drinkers. A measure of global cognition was not associated with alcohol intake at any point over the follow-up. Results suggest that higher alcohol consumption in midlife may impair some components of executive function in late life.The Journals of Gerontology Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 10/2010; 66(1):39-47. DOI:10.1093/geronb/gbq062 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A substantial literature exists that demonstrates associations between putative risk factors and cognitive decline in late life. However, there is a need to integrate this broad literature within a framework that incorporates the interaction of behavioral and ecological influences with cognitive development. Such a framework is required for developing a range of personal and environmental interventions to optimize cognitive development in the population, and to reduce the risk of cognitive impairment in late life. This review aims to identify the key considerations for developing a life course model of the various factors that influence cognitive development and cognitive decline. A contextualized, dynamic approach to life course epidemiology is proposed. A theoretical evaluation of key methodological and interpretational issues relating to how risk factors influence cognitive development and cognitive impairment was conducted. This focused on the example of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. This review identified dimensions that need to be accounted for in life course theories of cognitive development and cognitive impairment. These include: (a) intergenerational influences; (b) methodological and interpretational issues; (c) individual differences (personal factors); (d) contextual factors (environmental or ecological factors), and (e) cognitive ability as determinant. The methodological and interpretational factors included measurement of exposure and outcome variables; the important distinction between level of ability versus change over time; nonlinear relationships among exposures and outcomes, and outcomes and age; the distinction between association and cause, and between short-term effects and long-term change. A contextualized, dynamic approach to life course epidemiology accounts for the complex range of influences over the life course that interact to determine normal and pathological cognitive ageing. This approach provides a framework for the development of interventions to maximize cognitive gains in early life, and minimize cognitive loss in late life.Gerontology 02/2008; 54(5):283-91. DOI:10.1159/000161735 · 2.68 Impact Factor
Article: Does wine prevent dementia?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Roger M PinderPharma Consultant, York, UKAbstract: There is substantial evidence that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces significantly the risks of coronary heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the incidence of dementia, both of the Alzheimer’s type (AD) and the vascular variety (VaD), is lower in societies which consume a Mediterranean diet of mainly fish, fruit, vegetables, olive oil, and wine. In particular, extensive evidence from both population-based cohort and case control studies in different areas of the world and across genders and racial groups suggests that regular consumption of moderate amounts of alcohol, especially in the form of wine, is associated with a lower risk of developing AD and VaD compared with abstention and heavy drinking. Carriers of the APOE ε4 allele seem to gain less benefit. Age-related cognitive decline, particularly in women, is lower in regular drinkers, while older drinkers with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) progress less frequently to AD than their abstaining counterparts. Plausible biological mechanisms for the neuroprotective effects of wine include its glucose-modifying, antioxidant and inflammatory properties, but it additionally seems to modify the neuropathology of AD, particularly the deposition of amyloid plaque. Indeed, some of these mechanisms are already targets for the development of new therapeutic agents for the treatment of dementia.Keywords: alcohol, Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, epidemiology, polyphenols, wineInternational Journal of Wine Research 01/2009; DOI:10.2147/IJWR.S4691