Subjective memory complaints and cognitive impairment in older people.

Geriatric Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders (Impact Factor: 2.81). 02/2006; 22(5-6):471-85. DOI: 10.1159/000096295
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) are common in older people and are often thought to indicate cognitive impairment. We reviewed research on the relationship between SMCs and (a) current cognitive function, (b) risk of future cognitive decline, and (c) depression and personality. SMCs were found to be inconsistently related to current cognitive impairment but were more strongly related to risk of future cognitive decline. However, SMCs were consistently related to depression and some personality traits, e.g. neuroticism. In conclusion, the determinants of SMCs are complex. The utility of SMCs in the diagnosis of pre-dementia states (e.g. mild cognitive impairment) is uncertain and requires further evaluation.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a diagnostic classification used to describe patients experiencing cognitive decline but without a corresponding impairment in daily functioning. Over the years, MCI diagnostic criteria have undergone major changes that correspond to advancements in research. Despite these advancements, current diagnostic criteria for MCI contain issues that are reflected in the research literature. Methods: A review of the available MCI literature was conducted with emphasis given to tracing MCI from its conceptual underpinnings to the most current diagnostic criteria. A clinical vignette is utilized to highlight some of the limitations of current MCI diagnostic criteria. Results: Issues are encountered when applying MCI diagnostic criteria due to poor standardization. Estimates of prevalence, incidence, and rates of conversion from MCI to dementia reflect these issues. Conclusions: MCI diagnostic criteria are in need of greater standardization. Recommendations for future research are provided that could potentially bring more uniformity to the diagnostic criteria for MCI and, therefore, more consistency to the research literature.
    International Psychogeriatrics 11/2014; DOI:10.1017/S1041610214002270 · 1.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about subjective assessments of memory abilities and decline among middle-aged adults or their association with objective memory performance in the general population. In this study we examined self-ratings of memory ability and change in relation to episodic memory performance in two national samples of middle-aged and older adults from the Midlife in the United States study (MIDUS II in 2005-06) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; every 2 years from 2002 to 2012). MIDUS (Study 1) participants (N =3581) rated their memory compared to others their age and to themselves 5 years ago; HRS (Study 2) participants (N = 14,821) rated their current memory and their memory compared to 2 years ago, with up to six occasions of longitudinal data over 10 years. In both studies, episodic memory performance was the total number of words recalled in immediate and delayed conditions. When controlling for demographic and health correlates, self-ratings of memory abilities, but not subjective change, were related to performance. We examined accuracy by comparing subjective and objective memory ability and change. More than one third of the participants across the studies had self-assessments that were inaccurate relative to their actual level of performance and change, and accuracy differed as a function of demographic and health factors. Further understanding of self-awareness of memory abilities and change beginning in midlife may be useful for identifying early warning signs of decline, with implications regarding policies and practice for early detection and treatment of cognitive impairment.
    Journal of Population Ageing 03/2015; 8(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s12062-014-9108-5
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most broadly used cognitive screening instrument in clinical and research contexts. The MMSE was administered to a community-based sample of cognitively healthy adults (n = 850), stratified according to several sociodemographic variables, with a distribution similar to that observed in the Portuguese population. This study aimed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic (age, gender, education level, marital and employment status, geographic region, geographic localization, and residence area) and health variables (subjective memory complaints of the participant and evaluated by the informant, depressive symptoms, and family history of dementia) on the participants' performance on the MMSE and to establish normative data for the Portuguese population. Education level and age significantly contributed to the prediction of the MMSE scores and explained 26% of its variance. Regarding health variables, only the subjective memory complaints of the participant showed a small contribution (4%) to the variance ofthe MMSE scores. According to these results, age and education were considered in the development of the normative data of the MMSE for the Portuguese population.
    Applied Neuropsychology: Adult 12/2014; DOI:10.1080/23279095.2014.926455 · 1.32 Impact Factor