Transforming growth factor beta receptor type II inactivation induces the malignant transformation of intestinal neoplasms initiated by Apc mutation
ABSTRACT The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling pathway is a tumor-suppressor pathway that is commonly inactivated in colon cancer. TGF-beta is a secreted ligand that mediates its effects through a transmembrane heteromeric receptor complex, which consists of type I (TGFBR1) and type II subunits (TGFBR2). Approximately 30% of colon cancers carry TGFBR2 mutations, demonstrating that it is a common target for mutational inactivation in this cancer. To assess the functional role of TGFBR2 inactivation in the multistep progression sequence of colon cancer, we generated a mouse model that recapitulates two common genetic events observed in human colon cancer by mating Apc(1638N/wt) mice with mice that are null for Tgfbr2 in the intestinal epithelium, Villin-Cre;Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx) mice. In this model, we observed a dramatic increase in the number of intestinal adenocarcinomas in the Apc(1638N/wt);Villin-Cre;Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx) mice (called Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO)) compared with those mice with intact Tgfbr2 (Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx)). Additionally, in vitro analyses of epithelial tumor cells derived from the Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO) mice showed enhanced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 and MMP-9, as well as increased TGF-beta1 secretion in the conditioned medium. Similarly, primary tumor tissues from the Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(IEKO) mice also showed elevated amounts of TGF-beta1 as well as higher MMP-2 activity in comparison with Apc(1638N/wt);Tgfbr2(E2flx/E2flx)-derived tumors. Thus, loss of TGFBR2 in intestinal epithelial cells promotes the invasion and malignant transformation of tumors initiated by Apc mutation, providing evidence that Wnt signaling deregulation and TGF-beta signaling inactivation cooperate to drive the initiation and progression, respectively, of intestinal cancers in vivo.
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the UK, with over 37,500 people being diagnosed every year. Survival rates for CRC have doubled in the last 30 years and it is now curable if diagnosed early, but still over half of all sufferers do not survive for longer than 5 years after diagnosis. The major complication to treating this disease is that of metastasis, specifically to the liver, which is associated with a 5 year survival of less than 5%. These statistics highlight the importance of the development of earlier detection techniques and more targeted therapeutics. The future of treating this disease therefore lies in increasing understanding of the mutations which cause tumourigenesis, and insight into the development and progression of this complex disease. This can only be achieved through the use of functional models which recapitulate all aspects of the human disease. There is a wide range of models of CRC available to researchers, but all have their own strengths and weaknesses. Here we review how CRC can be modelled and discuss the future of modelling this complex disease, with a particular focus on how genetically engineered mouse models have revolutionised this area of research.Molecular oncology 02/2013; 7(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molonc.2013.02.006 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The microRNA-371-373 (miR-371-373) cluster is specifically expressed in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and is thought to be involved in stem cell maintenance. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) of this cluster were shown to be frequently upregulated in several human tumors. However, the regulatory mechanism for the involvement of the miR-371-373 cluster in human ESCs or cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the relationship between this miRNA cluster and the Wnt/β-catenin-signaling pathway, which has been shown to be involved in both stem cell maintenance and tumorigenesis. We show that miR-371-373 expression is induced by lithium chloride and is positively correlated with Wnt/β-catenin-signaling activity in several human cancer cell lines. Mechanistically, three TCF/LEF1-binding elements (TBEs) were identified in the promoter region and shown to be required for Wnt-dependent activation of miR-371-373. Interestingly, we also found that miR-372&373, in turn, activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. In addition, four protein genes related to the Wnt/β-catenin-signaling pathway were identified as direct targets of miR-372&373, including Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), a well-known inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Using a lentiviral system, we showed that overexpression of miR-372 or miR-373 promotes cell growth and the invasive activity of tumor cells as knockdown of DKK1. Taken together, our study demonstrates a novel β-catenin/LEF1-miR-372&373-DKK1 regulatory feedback loop, which may have a critical role in regulating the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in human cancer cells.Oncogene 10/2011; 31(24):2968-78. DOI:10.1038/onc.2011.461 · 8.56 Impact Factor
Article: TGFbeta in Cancer.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling pathway is a key player in metazoan biology, and its misregulation can result in tumor development. The regulatory cytokine TGFbeta exerts tumor-suppressive effects that cancer cells must elude for malignant evolution. Yet, paradoxically, TGFbeta also modulates processes such as cell invasion, immune regulation, and microenvironment modification that cancer cells may exploit to their advantage. Consequently, the output of a TGFbeta response is highly contextual throughout development, across different tissues, and also in cancer. The mechanistic basis and clinical relevance of TGFbeta's role in cancer is becoming increasingly clear, paving the way for a better understanding of the complexity and therapeutic potential of this pathway.Cell 08/2008; 134(2):215-30. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2008.07.001 · 33.12 Impact Factor