A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we conducted a survey within the South Carolina Autism Society. A total of 320 caregivers (32%) responded. Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution that was clinically meaningful and statistically sound. The factors were labeled "Ritualistic/Sameness Behavior," "Stereotypic Behavior," "Self-injurious Behavior," "Compulsive Behavior," and "Restricted Interests." Measures of internal consistency were high for this solution, and interrater reliability data suggested that the RBS-R performs well in outpatient settings.
"Score ( the sum of all Number - Endorsed – Subscale - Scores ) , Global Rating Score ( the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child ' s life summarized in a score that ranges from 1 to 100 ) were also calculated . A five - factor solution ( Lam & Aman , 2007 ) and a two - factor solution ( Georgiades , Papageorgiou , & Anagnostou , 2010 ; Mirenda et al . , 2010 ) scoring of RBS - R were adopted for this study . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities (RRB) are mandatory features for a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders-fifth edition (DSM-5). Despite the strong diagnostic role of RRB, their expressiveness and their relationship with other clinical/demographic features in ASD is not fully elucidated.
The Italian version of the Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) was applied to a relatively large sample of preschool-aged children with ASD who underwent a comprehensive clinical assessment. The relationship between RRB and sex, age, non-verbal IQ, autism severity, as well as the diagnostic accuracy of the RBS-R were explored.
Stereotyped and Ritualistic/Sameness behaviors were the most common RRB in preschoolers with ASD, without widespread differences between males and females. No significant correlations between RRB and chronological age, or non-verbal IQ were detected. The expressiveness of ritualistic/sameness behaviors positively correlated with autism severity, assessed through the Calibrated Severity Score (CSS) derived from the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) analysis showed high diagnostic accuracy using the Global Rating Score, which represents the judgment of the parents of as the RRB affect the child's life. However, while the Global Rating Score performed well, the remaining subscales did not.
This investigation extends the limited research on early pattern and associated features of RRB in young children with ASD. The use of the RBS-R may increase the knowledge of the RRB complexity and variability and in turn improve the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures within the autistic spectrum.
Research in Developmental Disabilities 01/2016; 48:43-52. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.015 · 3.40 Impact Factor
"Odd interests include interests that are not age appropriate or would not interest most individuals, and this could include a fascination with trains and train schedules, toilet bowls, memorizing phone numbers or zip codes, and facts about Presidents/World Leaders. Self-injurious behaviors include repetitive movements that can cause significant redness, bruising, or other injury to the brain (Bodfish et al., 2000; Lam & Aman, 2007). Examples of self-injurious behaviors include behaviors like head banging, hitting themselves, hair pulling, skin picking, and biting oneself. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with a variety of repetitive behaviors. These include stereotypies, compulsions and sameness behaviors, sensory disturbances, and intense preoccupations of topics. Animal models of repetitive behaviors led to hypotheses about the role of corticostriatal loops as the underlying neurobiology, including a recent tripartite model. I briefly review key components of corticostriatal loops of repetitive behaviors, and then synthesize the existing structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature that examines these corticostriatal loops in ASD. The MRI literature provides partial support for the role of corticostriatal loops in repetitive behaviors, but not the tripartite model per se. This review highlights the need to consider alternate models and proposes two potential avenues of research for clarifying the pathophysiology of these complex and life-interfering behaviors.
International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 49, Edited by Robert M Hodapp, Deborah J Fidler, 09/2015: pages 91-150; Elsevier.
"In fact , Bishop et al . ( 2012 ) and Lam and Aman ( 2007 ) proposed a five - factor model of the RBS - R items , but each model had different items . Studies using a more appropriate analysis technique are needed to examine multidimensional structuring of RRBs for ASD . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) constitute a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a widely used questionnaire administered by parents or caregivers to assess RRBs in individuals with ASD. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the RBS-R Japanese Version (RBS-R-J). The ASD and non-ASD groups comprised 274 and 36 participants, respectively. We examined corrected item-total correlation, Cronbach's alpha, and RBS-R-J scores of different diagnostic groups, as well as correlations between RBS-R-J scores and intelligence quotient (IQ), autistic symptoms, adaptive/maladaptive functioning, aberrant behaviors, and sensory processing. All items showed moderate corrected item-total correlations. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .93. We found significant differences in the mean RBS-R-J scores of the low-functioning ASD group and the intellectual disabilities group, and of low-functioning and high-functioning ASD groups. RBS-R-J scores negatively correlated with IQ and scores on the Sensory Profile (Japanese version) and Adaptive Behavior Composite of the Maladaptive Behavior Index of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II; Japanese version), but positively correlated with scores on the peak and current symptoms subscales of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, the VABS-II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (Japanese version). From these results, we conclude that RBS-R-J showed good reliability, diagnostic validity, and convergent validity, indicating that it is a reliable, valid instrument for use among ASD individuals in clinical and research settings.
Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 07/2015; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2015.01.002 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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