The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised: Independent Validation in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Neurodevelopmental Disorders Research Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB# 3367, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3367, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 06/2007; 37(5):855-66. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-006-0213-z
Source: PubMed


A key feature of autism is restricted repetitive behavior (RRB). Despite the significance of RRBs, little is known about their phenomenology, assessment, and treatment. The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a recently-developed questionnaire that captures the breadth of RRB in autism. To validate the RBS-R in an independent sample, we conducted a survey within the South Carolina Autism Society. A total of 320 caregivers (32%) responded. Factor analysis produced a five-factor solution that was clinically meaningful and statistically sound. The factors were labeled "Ritualistic/Sameness Behavior," "Stereotypic Behavior," "Self-injurious Behavior," "Compulsive Behavior," and "Restricted Interests." Measures of internal consistency were high for this solution, and interrater reliability data suggested that the RBS-R performs well in outpatient settings.

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    • "Odd interests include interests that are not age appropriate or would not interest most individuals, and this could include a fascination with trains and train schedules, toilet bowls, memorizing phone numbers or zip codes, and facts about Presidents/World Leaders. Self-injurious behaviors include repetitive movements that can cause significant redness, bruising, or other injury to the brain (Bodfish et al., 2000; Lam & Aman, 2007). Examples of self-injurious behaviors include behaviors like head banging, hitting themselves, hair pulling, skin picking, and biting oneself. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present with a variety of repetitive behaviors. These include stereotypies, compulsions and sameness behaviors, sensory disturbances, and intense preoccupations of topics. Animal models of repetitive behaviors led to hypotheses about the role of corticostriatal loops as the underlying neurobiology, including a recent tripartite model. I briefly review key components of corticostriatal loops of repetitive behaviors, and then synthesize the existing structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature that examines these corticostriatal loops in ASD. The MRI literature provides partial support for the role of corticostriatal loops in repetitive behaviors, but not the tripartite model per se. This review highlights the need to consider alternate models and proposes two potential avenues of research for clarifying the pathophysiology of these complex and life-interfering behaviors.
    International Review of Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 49, Edited by Robert M Hodapp, Deborah J Fidler, 09/2015: pages 91-150; Elsevier.
    • "In fact , Bishop et al . ( 2012 ) and Lam and Aman ( 2007 ) proposed a five - factor model of the RBS - R items , but each model had different items . Studies using a more appropriate analysis technique are needed to examine multidimensional structuring of RRBs for ASD . "
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    ABSTRACT: Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) constitute a core symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R) is a widely used questionnaire administered by parents or caregivers to assess RRBs in individuals with ASD. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the RBS-R Japanese Version (RBS-R-J). The ASD and non-ASD groups comprised 274 and 36 participants, respectively. We examined corrected item-total correlation, Cronbach's alpha, and RBS-R-J scores of different diagnostic groups, as well as correlations between RBS-R-J scores and intelligence quotient (IQ), autistic symptoms, adaptive/maladaptive functioning, aberrant behaviors, and sensory processing. All items showed moderate corrected item-total correlations. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was .93. We found significant differences in the mean RBS-R-J scores of the low-functioning ASD group and the intellectual disabilities group, and of low-functioning and high-functioning ASD groups. RBS-R-J scores negatively correlated with IQ and scores on the Sensory Profile (Japanese version) and Adaptive Behavior Composite of the Maladaptive Behavior Index of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II; Japanese version), but positively correlated with scores on the peak and current symptoms subscales of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders Autism Society Japan Rating Scale, the VABS-II, and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (Japanese version). From these results, we conclude that RBS-R-J showed good reliability, diagnostic validity, and convergent validity, indicating that it is a reliable, valid instrument for use among ASD individuals in clinical and research settings.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 07/2015; 15. DOI:10.1016/j.rasd.2015.01.002 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    • "Lower order repetitive behaviors can include stereotyped movements or repetitive self-injurious behavior. Higher order RRBs instead are characterized by an " insistence on sameness " or rigid adherence to a rule or routine (Lam and Aman, 2007; Boyd et al., 2012). The findings with McN-343 suggest that treatment with a M1 mAChR agonist may be effective in treating lower-order repetitive behaviors in ASD. "
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    ABSTRACT: Repetitive behaviors with restricted interests is one of the core criteria for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Current pharmacotherapies that target the dopaminergic or serotonergic systems have limited effectiveness in treating repetitive behaviors. Previous research has demonstrated that administration of muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR) antagonists can exacerbate motor stereotypies while mAChR agonists reduce stereotypies. The present study determined whether the mAChR agonist, oxotremorine affected repetitive behaviors in the BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mouse model of autism. To test the effects of oxotremorine on repetitive behaviors, marble burying and grooming behavior were measured in BTBR mice and compared to that in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The effects of oxotremorine on locomotor activity was also measured. Thirty minutes before each test, mice received an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of saline, 0.001 mg or 0.01 mg of oxotremorine methiodide. Saline- treated BTBR mice exhibited increased marble burying and self-grooming behavior compared to that of saline-treated B6 mice. Oxotremorine significantly reduced marble burying and self-grooming behavior in BTBR mice, but had no significant effect in B6 mice. In addition, oxotremorine did not affect locomotor activity in BTBR mice, but significantly reduced locomotor activity in B6 mice at the 0.01 mg dose. These findings demonstrate that activation of mAChRs reduces repetitive behavior in the BTBR mouse and suggest that treatment with a mAChR agonist may be effective in reducing repetitive behaviors in ASD.
    Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience 08/2014; 6:17. DOI:10.3389/fnsyn.2014.00017
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