We sought to compare the kinetics of in vitro lysozyme deposition on silicone hydrogel (SH), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and FDA groups I, II, and IV contact lenses. Lenses were incubated in 125I-labeled lysozyme for time periods ranging from 1 hr to 28 days, and radioactive counts were determined. SH lenses and PMMA deposited less lysozyme than conventional hydrogel lenses (p < 0.05). Lysozyme accumulation on group IV lenses reached a maximum on the seventh day and then plateaued, whereas on groups I, II, and SH lenses, deposition continued to increase across all time periods, reiterating that kinetics of lysozyme deposition is highly material dependent.
"Hydrophilic glassy silicate ‘islands’ can be seen on the surface of BA lenses  due to the oxidation of TRIS . BA is considered ionic (FDA Group III) due to its incorporation of N-vinyl aminobutyric acid and as a result, this material typically accumulates more tear proteins, particularly those that are positively charged, compared to other SH lenses [5,27,30]. Furthermore, unlike other SH lenses, the surface of BA is more porous, allowing for protein to penetrate through the matrix [72,73]. Of the total amount of protein depositing on worn BA lenses (5–34 μg) [5,33], lysozyme accounts for 32%  to 50% . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of incubation solution composition on protein deposition to silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lenses using a simplistic and a complex model of the tear film.
Three SH materials--senofilcon A (SA), lotrafilcon B (LB), and balafilcon A (BA)--were incubated in two different solutions; Solution A was a simplistic augmented buffered saline solution containing a single protein, whereas Solution B was a complex artificial tear solution (ATS), containing the augmented buffered saline solution in addition to proteins, lipids, and mucins (pH=7.4). The proteins of interest (lysozyme, lactoferrin, albumin) were radiolabeled with Iodine-125 (2% protein of interest) and the accumulation of the conjugated protein to the lens materials was determined after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of incubation. Protein deposition was measured using a gamma counter and the raw data were translated into absolute amounts (µg/lens) via extrapolation from standards.
After 28 days, lysozyme uptake was significantly lower on BA lenses when incubated in Solution A (33.7 μg) compared to Solution B (56.2 μg), p<0.001. SA lenses deposited similar amounts of lysozyme when incubated in either Solution A (2.6 μg) or Solution B (4.1 μg), p>0.05. LB lenses also deposited similar amounts of lysozyme for both solutions (Solution A: 5.0 μg, Solution B: 4.7 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, BA lenses accumulated approximately twice the amount of lactoferrin than the other lens materials, with 30.3 μg depositing when exposed to Solution A and 22.0 μg with Solution B. The difference between the two solutions was statistically significant (p<0.001). LB materials deposited significantly greater amounts of lactoferrin when incubated in Solution A (16.6 μg) compared to Solution B (10.3 μg), p<0.001. Similar amounts of lactoferrin were accumulated onto SA lenses regardless of incubation solution composition (Solution A: 8.2 μg, Solution B: 11.2 μg, p>0.05). After 28 days, albumin deposition onto BA lenses was significantly greater when lenses were incubated in Solution B (1.7 μg) compared to Solution A (0.9 μg), p<0.001. Similar amounts of albumin were deposited on SA lenses when incubated in either solution (0.6 μg versus 0.7 μg, p>0.05). LB lenses incubated in Solution A deposited more albumin compared to Solution B (0.9 μg versus 0.6 μg), p=0.003.
Protein deposition onto SH materials varied when contact lenses were incubated in either a complex ATS compared to a single protein solution. More lysozyme accumulated onto BA lenses incubated in a complex analog of the human tear film, whereas lactoferrin deposited onto SA lenses independent of incubation solution composition. To better mimic the ex vivo environment, future studies should use more appropriate analogs of the tear film.
"Cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine were chosen for examination using a radiochemical experiment. Radiochemical experiments have been widely used in biomaterials research [63-68] including contact lens research, especially protein deposition research [18,24,25,29,30,69]. It has been shown to be a very sensitive, repeatable and reliable method of analysis and thus was chosen for this experiment. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize various properties of a physiologically-relevant artificial tear solution (ATS) containing a range of tear film components within a complex salt solution, and to measure contact lens parameters and lipid deposition of a variety of contact lens materials after incubation in this ATS.
A complex ATS was developed that contains a range of salts, proteins, lipids, mucin, and other tear film constituents in tear-film relevant concentrations. This ATS was tested to confirm that its pH, osmolality, surface tension, and homogeneity are similar to human tears and remain so throughout the material incubation process, for up to 4 weeks. To confirm that silicone hydrogel and conventional hydrogel contact lens materials do not alter in physical characteristics beyond what is allowed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 18369-2. The diameter, center thickness, and calculated base curve were measured for five different lens materials directly out of the blister pack, after a rinse in saline and then following a two week incubation in the modified ATS. To test the ATS and the effect of its composition on lipid deposition, two lens materials were incubated in the ATS and a modified version for several time points. Both ATS solutions contained trace amounts of carbon-14 cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine, such that deposition of these specific lipids could be quantified using standard methods.
This ATS is a complex mixture that remains stable at physiologically relevant pH (7.3-7.6), osmolality (304-306 mmol/kg), surface tension (40-46 dynes/cm) and homogeneity over an incubation period of three weeks or more. The physical parameters of the lenses tested showed no changes beyond that allowed by the ISO guidelines. Incubations with the ATS found that balafilcon A lenses deposit significantly more cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine than omafilcon A lenses (p<0.05) and that removing lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G from the ATS can significantly decrease the mass of lipid deposited.
This paper describes a novel complex artificial tear solution specially designed for in-vial incubation of contact lens materials. This solution was stable and did not adversely affect the physical parameters of the soft contact lenses incubated within it and showed that lipid deposition was responsive to changes in ATS composition.
"Chemical properties such as oxygen permeability  and wettability , in addition to protein and lipid sorption [3-6], have been the primary focus of most studies investigating the biocompatibility of contact lens materials with the external ocular surface. Recently, potential issues with various components of multi-purpose cleaning solutions and the preservative agents contained therein have led to in vitro studies whereby these solutions, at various concentrations, are tested directly on conjunctival or epithelial cells [7-11]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although all contact lenses (CLs) are applied initially to the eye directly from a packaging solution, little is known about the effects of these solutions on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). Due to the porous nature of CL materials, they have the potential to sorb components of the packaging solution during storage, which could then be subsequently released upon insertion of the CL on the eye. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various packaging solutions on HCECs, using an in vitro model.
An in vitro assay was developed whereby various silicone hydrogels and conventional, poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (polyHEMA)-based lens materials were removed directly from their packaging and then incubated for up to 24 h with HCECs. The effect of the retained and released packaging solution components on HCECs was assessed by measuring cell viability, adhesion phenotype, and apoptosis.
Incubation of HCECs with CLs stored in borate-buffered packaging solutions resulted in a significant reduction in cell viability. Adherent cells incubated with these CLs also exhibited reduced levels of beta(1) and alpha(3) integrin. Soaking borate-buffered packaged CLs in PBS before cell incubation resolved viability and integrin expression in all cases, with the exception of galyfilcon A and balafilcon A, from which a 20% reduction in cell viability was still observed. In comparison, CLs stored in phosphate-buffered packaging solutions had cellular viability and expression of integrins similar to control cells (cells incubated in the absence of a lens). When incubated with cells at a 10% concentration in serum-free medium, borate-buffered packaging solutions and borate-containing saline (Unisol 4) significantly reduced cell viability and integrin expression. Neither caspase activation nor annexin V binding was observed on cells following exposure to borate buffer solution. However, a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species was observed at 24 h. These latter results suggest that in vitro exposure to low concentration of borate/boric acid results in cell dysfunction, leading to necrosis rather than apoptosis.
Borate-buffered packaging solutions were shown to adversely affect the viability and integrin expression of HCECs in vitro. When used in ophthalmic packaging solutions, the antimicrobial properties of borate buffer may be outweighed by its relatively cytotoxic effects on cells.
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