Evidence-based guidelines for the investigation and medical treatment of recurrent miscarriage.
Human Reproduction (impact factor: 4.47). 02/2007; 22(1):309; author reply 309-11. DOI:10.1093/humrep/del349 pp.309; author reply 309-11
Article: Genetics of early miscarriage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A miscarriage is the most frequent complication of a pregnancy. Poor chromosome preparations, culture failure, or maternal cell contamination may hamper conventional karyotyping. Techniques such as chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization (chromosomal-CGH), array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) enable us to trace submicroscopic abnormalities. We found the prevalence of chromosome abnormalities in women facing a single sporadic miscarriage to be 45% (95% CI: 38-52; 13 studies, 7012 samples). The prevalence of chromosome abnormalities in women experiencing a subsequent miscarriage after preceding recurrent miscarriage proved to be comparable: 39% (95% CI: 29-50; 6 studies 1359 samples). More chromosome abnormalities are detected by conventional karyotyping compared to FISH or MLPA only (chromosome region specific techniques), and the same amount of abnormalities compared to QF-PCR (chromosome region specific techniques) and chromosomal-CGH and array-CGH (whole genome techniques) only. Molecular techniques could play a role as an additional technique when culture failure or maternal contamination occurs: recent studies show that by using array-CGH, an additional 5% of submicroscopic chromosome variants can be detected. Because of the small sample size as well as the unknown clinical relevance of these molecular aberrations, more and larger studies should be performed of submicroscopic chromosome abnormalities among sporadic miscarriage samples. For recurrent miscarriage samples molecular technique studies are relatively new. It has often been suggested that miscarriages are due to chromosomal abnormalities in more than 50%, but the present review has determined that chromosomal and submicroscopic genetic abnormalities on average are prevalent in maximally half of the miscarriage samples. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular Genetics of Human Reproductive Failure.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2012; · 4.66 Impact Factor
Chapter: Antiphospholipid Autoantibodies in Women with Recurrent Gestational Failures � Controversies in Management04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0526-8
Article: Number and sequence of preceding miscarriages and maternal age for the prediction of antiphospholipid syndrome in women with recurrent miscarriage.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the number and sequence of preceding miscarriages and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Recurrent miscarriage (RM) clinic. PATIENT(S): Women who attended the RM clinic from 1988 to 2006. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Number, type, and sequence of previous pregnancies were compared between women with APS and women with unexplained RM. RESULT(S): A total of 1,719 patients were included; 312 (18%) had APS, and 1,407 (82%) had unexplained RM. The mean maternal age (32.6 years) did not differ between women with and without APS. The median number of miscarriages was three in both groups. A total of 865 women (50%) had a history of at least one live birth, with no difference between the two groups. In both groups, 97% of the women had a history of consecutive miscarriages. CONCLUSION(S): The number of preceding miscarriage, type and sequence of previous pregnancies, and maternal age were not associated with APS in women with RM. There is no increased diagnostic yield for APS after three miscarriages rather than after two miscarriages and no increased diagnostic yield for APS after consecutive miscarriages rather than after nonconsecutive miscarriages. Therefore, APS testing should be considered for all women with two or more miscarriages.Fertility and sterility 10/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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