S6K1- and beta TRCP-mediated degradation of PDCD4 promotes protein translation and cell growth
ABSTRACT The tumor suppressor programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4) inhibits the translation initiation factor eIF4A, an RNA helicase that catalyzes the unwinding of secondary structure at the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In response to mitogens, PDCD4 was rapidly phosphorylated on Ser67 by the protein kinase S6K1 and subsequently degraded via the ubiquitin ligase SCF(betaTRCP). Expression in cultured cells of a stable PDCD4 mutant that is unable to bind betaTRCP inhibited translation of an mRNA with a structured 5'UTR, resulted in smaller cell size, and slowed down cell cycle progression. We propose that regulated degradation of PDCD4 in response to mitogens allows efficient protein synthesis and consequently cell growth.
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ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle plays a fundamental role in mobility, disease prevention, and quality of life. Skeletal muscle mass is, in part, determined by the rates of protein synthesis, and mechanical loading is a major regulator of protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), found in the multi-protein complex, mTORC1, is proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this review is to examine the function of mTORC1 in relation to protein synthesis and cell growth, the current evidence from rodent and human studies for the activation of mTORC1 signaling by different types of mechanical stimuli, whether mTORC1 signaling is necessary for changes in protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass that occur in response to different types of mechanical stimuli, and the proposed molecular signaling mechanisms that may be responsible for the mechanical activation of mTORC1 signaling.
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ABSTRACT: mRNA translation is thought to be the most energy-consuming process in the cell. Translation and energy metabolism are dysregulated in a variety of diseases including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. However, the mechanisms that coordinate translation and energy metabolism in mammals remain largely unknown. The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) stimulates mRNA translation and other anabolic processes. We demonstrate that mTORC1 controls mitochondrial activity and biogenesis by selectively promoting translation of nucleus-encoded mitochondria-related mRNAs via inhibition of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding proteins (4E-BPs). Stimulating the translation of nucleus-encoded mitochondria-related mRNAs engenders an increase in ATP production capacity, a required energy source for translation. These findings establish a feed-forward loop that links mRNA translation to oxidative phosphorylation, thereby providing a key mechanism linking aberrant mTOR signaling to conditions of abnormal cellular energy metabolism such as neoplasia and insulin resistance.Cell metabolism 11/2013; 18(5):698-711. DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.10.001 · 16.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Under conditions of stress, such as limited growth factor signaling, translation is inhibited by the action of 4E-BP and PDCD4. These proteins, through inhibition of eIF4E and eIF4A, respectively, impair cap-dependent translation. Under stress conditions FOXO transcription factors activate 4E-BP expression amplifying the repression. Here we show that Drosophila FOXO binds the PDCD4 promoter and stimulates the transcription of PDCD4 in response to stress. We have shown previously that the 5' UTR of the Drosophila insulin-like receptor (dINR) supports cap-independent translation that is resistant to 4E-BP. Using hippuristanol, an eIF4A inhibitor, we find that translation of dINR UTR containing transcripts are also resistant to eIF4A inhibition. In addition, the murine insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor 5' UTRs support cap-independent translation and have a similar resistance to hippuristanol. This resistance to inhibition of eIF4E and eIF4A indicates a conserved strategy to allow translation of growth factor receptors under stress conditions. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00542.001.eLife Sciences 07/2013; 2:e00542. DOI:10.7554/eLife.00542 · 8.52 Impact Factor