Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for symptomatic endometriosis following surgery
ABSTRACT Various options exist for treating endometriosis, including ovarian suppression therapy, surgical treatment or a combination of these strategies. Surgical treatment of endometriosis sets out to remove visible areas of endometriosis and restore anatomy by division of adhesions. The aim of medical therapy is to inhibit growth of endometriotic implants by suppression of ovarian steroids and induction of a hypo-estrogenic state. Postoperative treatment with a hormone-releasing intrauterine system, using levonorgestrel (LNG-IUS), has been suggested.
To determine if postoperative use of an LNG-IUS in women with endometriosis improves pain symptoms associated with menstruation and reduces recurrence compared with treatment with surgery only, placebo or systemic hormones.
The following databases were searched: (1) Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials; (2) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1); (3) MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2006); (4) National Research Register (NRR). (5) The citation lists of relevant publications, review articles, abstracts of scientific meetings and included studies were also searched.
Trials were included if they compared women undergoing any type of surgical treatment for endometriosis with uterine preservation then randomized to LNG-IUS insertion within two to three months versus no treatment, placebo (inert IUD) or systemic treatment. Diagnostic laparoscopy alone was excluded.
Two review authors (AM Abou-Setta and HG Al-Inany) independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted data. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the statistical guidelines developed by the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group. Data extracted from the trials was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. For binary data, the overall common odds ratio (OR) (that is, the odds of having clinical symptoms) and the risk difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method.
In one small randomized controlled trial (RCT) there was a statistically significant reduction in the recurrence of painful periods in the LNG-IUS group compared with the control group receiving a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (OR 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.75). The proportion of women who were satisfied with their treatment was higher in the LNG-IUS group than in the control group but this difference did not reach statistical difference (OR 3.00, 0.79 to 11.44).
One small study has shown that postoperative use of the LNG-IUS reduces the recurrence of painful periods in women who have had surgery for endometriosis. There is a need for further well-designed RCTs of this approach.
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ABSTRACT: Levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) were originally developed as a method of contraception in the mid 1970s. The only LNG-IUS approved for general public use is the Mirena LNG-IUS, which releases 20 mcg of levonorgestrel per day directly in to the uterine cavity. However, new lower dose (10 and 14 mcg per day) and smaller sized LNG-IUS (MLS, FibroPlant-LNG) are currently under clinical development and investigation. Research into the non-contraceptive uses of LNG-IUS is rapidly expanding. In the UK, LNG-IUS is licensed for use in menorrhagia and to provide endometrial protection to perimenopausal and postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy. There is limited evidence to suggest that LNG-IUS may also be beneficial in women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia and early stage endometrial cancer (where the patient is deemed unfit for primary surgical therapy). This systematic enquiry and overview evaluates the quality of evidence relating to the non-contraceptive therapeutic uses of LNG-IUS in gynaecology.European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 04/2006; 125(1):9-28. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2005.10.029 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Part of the success of ultrasound-guided embryo transfer has been associated with the beneficial effect of uterine straightening by passive bladder distention. Even so, this has not been properly analysed in the literature. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective, randomised, controlled trials, comparing embryo transfer with a full versus empty bladder. Electronic (e.g. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) and hand searches were performed to locate trials. Primary outcomes were live-birth, ongoing and clinical pregnancy rates. Secondary outcomes were rates of implantation, miscarriage, multiple and ectopic pregnancies, and retained embryos. Also, the ease of transfer, need for instrumental assistance, and presence of blood on the catheter tip were evaluated. Four studies were identified, of which 1 study was excluded. Meta-analysis was conducted with the Mantel-Haenszel method, utilising the fixed-effect model. For the primary outcome measures, no data was available for the LBR rate. There was a significantly higher chance of an ongoing pregnancy [OR=1.44 (95% CI=1.04-2.04)] and clinical pregnancy [OR=1.55 (95% CI=1.16-2.08)] with a full bladder. For the secondary outcomes, there was a significantly greater incidence of difficulty, or need for instrumental assistance, with an empty bladder. Other outcome measures were not significantly different. There is evidence in the literature advising to fill the bladder prior to embryo transfer.Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica 02/2007; 86(5):516-22. DOI:10.1080/00016340701252126 · 1.99 Impact Factor