Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) for symptomatic endometriosis following surgery
ABSTRACT Various options exist for treating endometriosis, including ovarian suppression therapy, surgical treatment or a combination of these strategies. Surgical treatment of endometriosis sets out to remove visible areas of endometriosis and restore anatomy by division of adhesions. The aim of medical therapy is to inhibit growth of endometriotic implants by suppression of ovarian steroids and induction of a hypo-estrogenic state. Postoperative treatment with a hormone-releasing intrauterine system, using levonorgestrel (LNG-IUS), has been suggested.
To determine if postoperative use of an LNG-IUS in women with endometriosis improves pain symptoms associated with menstruation and reduces recurrence compared with treatment with surgery only, placebo or systemic hormones.
The following databases were searched: (1) Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials; (2) Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 1); (3) MEDLINE (1966 to January 2006) and EMBASE (1980 to January 2006); (4) National Research Register (NRR). (5) The citation lists of relevant publications, review articles, abstracts of scientific meetings and included studies were also searched.
Trials were included if they compared women undergoing any type of surgical treatment for endometriosis with uterine preservation then randomized to LNG-IUS insertion within two to three months versus no treatment, placebo (inert IUD) or systemic treatment. Diagnostic laparoscopy alone was excluded.
Two review authors (AM Abou-Setta and HG Al-Inany) independently selected studies for inclusion and extracted data. Statistical analysis was performed in accordance with the statistical guidelines developed by the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group. Data extracted from the trials was analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. For binary data, the overall common odds ratio (OR) (that is, the odds of having clinical symptoms) and the risk difference with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method.
In one small randomized controlled trial (RCT) there was a statistically significant reduction in the recurrence of painful periods in the LNG-IUS group compared with the control group receiving a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist (OR 0.14, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.75). The proportion of women who were satisfied with their treatment was higher in the LNG-IUS group than in the control group but this difference did not reach statistical difference (OR 3.00, 0.79 to 11.44).
One small study has shown that postoperative use of the LNG-IUS reduces the recurrence of painful periods in women who have had surgery for endometriosis. There is a need for further well-designed RCTs of this approach.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The management of endometriosis with OC or progestins is generally safe, effective and well-tolerated and should constitute the first line of medical treatment in symptomatic patients who do not want to have children. Progestins, synthetic progestational agents, have been used in the management of symptomatic endometriosis both as primary therapy and as an adjunct to surgical time. A variety of oral agents have been employed in this regard and investigators have demonstrated differing degrees of benefit. The lack of a standardized instrument to evaluate painful symptoms makes comparative analysis more difficult. Concern about efficacy and side effect has pushed the research on the development of new well-tolerated drugs and to develop new administration routes to minimize general side effects. Aim of the present review is to present the results of clinical studies on new trends of progestins in the treatment of endometriosis.Gynecological Endocrinology 08/2014; 30(11):1-5. DOI:10.3109/09513590.2014.950646 · 1.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:191967. DOI:10.1155/2014/191967 · 2.71 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is an enigmatic disease characterized by development of endometrial tissue outside of the uterus, causing pain and infertility. This guideline will provide evidence based information concerning diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis. Constructive dialogue should allow patients to be able to trust the advice given by their practitioner as they will be confi dent that they have and will be able to use this guideline to inform this decision-making process. This guideline has been developed with the aim of providing guidance on endometriosis. The effectiveness of the various treatments as well as their risks and benefi ts are discussed in relation to their use in the treatment of endometriosis. We wish the information contained in this guideline will help clinicians reach a reasonable and benefi cial decision with the up-to-date information.01/2011; 54(8). DOI:10.5468/KJOG.2011.54.8.399