Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually in the pelvis, that can lead to infertility and pelvic pain. It is managed with surgery, hormonal medications, or a combination of both. The progestogen levonorgestrel is one such hormonal medication. The aim of this review was to assess whether the use of a hormone-releasing intrauterine device was beneficial for managing associated painful symptoms and for preventing recurrence of endometriosis following surgery. Although preliminary findings are encouraging, at this stage there is only limited evidence from three randomised trials of a beneficial role with the use of the LNG-IUD in reducing the recurrence of painful periods following surgery for endometriosis. The strength of the evidence was graded as moderate reflecting our belief that future evidence will most likely not change these findings.
"Its use in the treatment of endometriosis of the rectovaginal septum provides a significant reduction in dysmenorrhea, pelvic pain, and deep dyspareunia, as well as the size of the endometriotic implants, showing levels of efficacy comparable to GnRH analogues [18, 19]. Furthermore, it appears to be effective in preventing the recurrence of endometriosis after surgical treatment . Petta et al. suggested that its use would be a favourable treatment for chronic pelvic pain, because it determines a long state of hypoestrogenism, requiring only one medical intervention for its introduction every 5 years . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.
BioMed Research International 08/2014; 2014:191967. DOI:10.1155/2014/191967 · 1.58 Impact Factor
"Although not approved for use in endometriosis by the US Food and Drug Administration, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system used after conservative surgery can be effective in reducing chronic pain.53 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rectovaginal endometriosis is the most severe form of endometriosis. Clinically, it presents with a number of symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, deep dyspareunia, dyschezia, and rectal bleeding. The gold standard for diagnosis is laparoscopy with histological confirmation; however, there are a number of options for presurgical diagnosis, including clinical examination, transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imagining, colonoscopy, and computed tomography colonography. Treatment can be medical or surgical. Medical therapies include birth control pills, oral progestins, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol, and injectable progestins. Analgesics are often used as well. Surgery improves up to 70% of symptoms. Surgery is either ablative or excisional, and is conducted via transvaginal, laparoscopic, laparotomy, or combined approaches. Common surgical techniques involve shaving of the superficial rectal lesion, laparoscopic anterior discoid resection, and low anterior bowel resection and reanastomosis. Outcomes are generally favorable, but postoperative complications may include intra-abdominal bleeding, anastomotic leaks, rectovaginal fistulas, strictures, chronic constipation, and the need for reoperation. Recurrence of rectal endometriosis is a possibility as well. Other outcomes are improved pain-related symptoms and fertility. Long-term outcomes vary according to the management strategy used. This review will provide the most recent approaches and techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of rectovaginal endometriosis.
International Journal of Women's Health 11/2013; 5(1):753-763. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S37846
"The success of the LNG IUS in providing locally released progestins without causing marked systemic adverse effects has led to its use in other pelvic conditions, regardless of the need for contraception. LNG IUS use has been proposed for atypical endometrial hyperplasia,92 heavy menstrual bleeding,93 endometriosis and adenomyosis,94 and uterine fibroids.95 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Norgestrel, a synthetic progestin chemically derived from 19-nortestosterone, is six times more potent than progesterone, with variable binding affinity to various steroid receptors. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) provides a long-acting, highly effective, and reversible form of contraception, with a pearl index of 0.18 per 100 women-years. The locally released hormone leads to endometrial concentrations that are 200-800 times those found after daily oral use and a plasma level that is lower than that with other forms of levonorgestrel-containing contraception. The contraceptive effect of the LNG IUS is achieved mainly through its local suppressive effect on the endometrium, leading to endometrial thinning, glandular atrophy, and stromal decidualization without affecting ovulation. The LNG IUS is generally well tolerated. The main side effects are related to its androgenic activity, which is usually mild and transient, resolving after the first few months. Menstrual abnormalities are also common but well tolerated, and even become desirable (eg, amenorrhea, hypomenorrhea, and oligomenorrhea) with proper counseling of the patient during the choice of the method of contraception. The satisfaction rates after 3 years of insertion are high, reaching between 77% and 94%. The local effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium and low rates of systemic adverse effects have led to its use in other conditions rather than contraception, as for the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia, benign menorrhagia, endometriosis, adenomyosis, and uterine fibroids.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.