Antidepressants for patients with tinnitus
ABSTRACT Tinnitus is described as the perception of sound or noise in the absence of real acoustic stimulation. It has been compared with chronic pain, and may be associated with depression or depressive symptoms which can affect quality of life and the ability to work. Antidepressant drugs have been used to treat tinnitus in patients with and without depressive symptoms.
To assess the effectiveness of antidepressants in the treatment of tinnitus and to ascertain whether any benefit was due to a direct tinnitus effect or a secondary effect due to treatment of concomitant depressive states.
We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2006); MEDLINE (January 1951 to 2006); EMBASE (1974 to 2006), CINAHL (to 2006), PSYCINFO (to 2006), LILACS (to 2006), and Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. The date of the most recent search was March 2006.
Randomised controlled clinical studies of antidepressant drugs versus placebo in patients with tinnitus.
The studies retrieved were critically appraised and data extracted independently by two authors. Where necessary study authors were contacted for further information.
Five trials involving 525 patients were included. Four of these trials looked at the effect of tricyclic antidepressants on tinnitus, investigating 405 patients. One trial investigated the effect of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in a group of 120 patients. No trials involving other antidepressant agents met the inclusion criteria. Only the trial using the SSRI drug met the highest quality standard. None of the other included trials met the highest quality standard, due to use of inadequate outcome measures, large drop out rates or failure to separate the effects on tinnitus from the effects on symptoms of anxiety and depression. All the trials assessing tricyclic antidepressants suggested that there was a slight improvement in tinnitus but these effects may have been attributable to methodological bias. The trial that investigated the SSRI drug found no overall improvement in any of the validated outcome measures that were used in the study although there was possible benefit for a subgroup that received higher doses of the drug. This observation merits further investigation. Reports of side effects including sedation, sexual dysfunction and dry mouth were common.
There is insufficient evidence to say that antidepressant drug therapy improves tinnitus.
- SourceAvailable from: In Seok Moon[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Conclusion: The study showed that combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the auditory cortex and prefrontal cortex has more benefit than rTMS on the auditory cortex alone for tinnitus control in patients with depression. Further studies for the most optimal combination of stimulation on both areas are needed. Objective: Recent studies suggest that the neuronal network changes of chronic tinnitus are beyond the auditory pathway. There is increasing evidences for the application of rTMS on multiple brain cortices in addition to the auditory cortex for the treatment of tinnitus. Sequential rTMS was performed on the auditory cortex alone as well as the auditory cortex combined with prefrontal cortex in patients with both chronic tinnitus and depression. Methods: Patients who presented with chronic tinnitus of more than 1 year were enrolled in the present study (seven males, four females; mean age 54 years). To select the site for the rTMS, PET CT was performed. Patients received the first rTMS on the primary auditory cortex for 5 days and on the primary auditory cortex and prefrontal cortex in the second application after tinnitus relapse. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), visual analog scale (VAS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were evaluated before and after rTMS. Results: The mean THI score of the eight patients with depression changed from 77.5 ± 15 to 61.8 ± 20.1 after the second rTMS. There was statistical significance only for the second rTMS. The VAS score changed from 8.6 ± 1.6 to 6.3 ± 1.8 after the first rTMS and from 7.6 ± 2.4 to 4.6 ± 2.7 after the second rTMS, showing statistically significant changes both times. The THI changes after the second rTMS were greater than after the first rTMS, and the changes in VAS score showed a similar pattern. The changes in BDI score, which indicates the severity of depression, showed a variable pattern after rTMS. Patients with mild depression (10≤ BDI score <16, n = 4) showed significant improvement of THI with the second combined rTMS (ΔTHI = 24.5) as compared with the first rTMS on the auditory area (ΔTHI = 6). In contrast, combined rTMS did not show any better improvement on THI (ΔTHI = 6.5) than the first rTMS on the auditory cortex (ΔTHI = 7) in patients without depression (BDI <10, n = 3) and patients with moderate to severe depression (BDI ≥16, n = 4).Acta oto-laryngologica 02/2013; DOI:10.3109/00016489.2012.763181 · 0.99 Impact Factor
Article: Tinnitus and depression.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depressive symptoms are common in individuals with tinnitus and may substantially aggravate their distress. The mechanisms, however, by which depression and tinnitus mutually interact are still not fully understood. Here we review neurobiological knowledge relevant for the interplay between depression and tinnitus. Neuroimaging studies confirm the existence of neural circuits that are activated both in depression and tinnitus. Studies of neuroendocrine function demonstrate alterations of the HPA-axis in depression and, more recently, in tinnitus. Studies addressing neurotransmission suggest that the dorsal cochlear nucleus that is typically hyperactive in tinnitus, is also involved in the control of attention and emotional responses via projections to the locus coeruleus, the reticular formation and the raphe nuclei. Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis has been documented in animals with tinnitus after noise trauma, as in animal models of depression. Finally, from investigations of human candidate genes, there is some evidence to suggest that variant BDNF may act as a common susceptibility factor in both disorders. These parallels in the pathophysiology of tinnitus and depression argue against comorbidity by chance and against depression as pure reaction on tinnitus. Instead, they stand for a complex interplay between tinnitus and depression. Implications for tinnitus treatment are discussed.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 05/2011; 12(7):489-500. DOI:10.3109/15622975.2011.575178 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: About 10% of the population experiences tinnitus, a common and distressing symptom characterized by the perception of sound in the absence of external stimuli. There is, however, marked heterogeneity in etiology, perception, and extent of distress among those who experience tinnitus. Reactions to tinnitus vary from simple awareness to severe irritation; some people have difficulty in hearing because of the loudness of the noise. Severe tinnitus causes many, often psychological, symptoms (e.g., tension, frustration, impaired concentration, disrupted sleep). For some, tinnitus is temporary, for others it is longstanding. Although many people adjust successfully, others are disabled by tinnitus; approximately 5% experience persistent and severe symptoms affecting their lifestyle and significantly reducing their quality of life. Because tinnitus is poorly understood and no single therapeutic approach is effective for all patients, many patients are told that ''nothing can be done'' and they must ''learn to live with it.'' In spite of these challenges, there is remarkably little relevant nursing literature on tinnitus. This literature review was conducted to explore current knowledge of tinnitus, including prevalence, causes and diagnosis, and assessment. Its psychosocial effects and impact on individuals are considered. Implications for practice are discussed-demonstrating that understanding the full impact of the condition and identifying patients' needs are essential to effective care.Biological Research for Nursing 01/2011; 13(1):97-108. DOI:10.1177/1099800410382290 · 1.34 Impact Factor