Nutritional support for head-injured patients

London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Nutrition & Public Health Intervention Research Unit, Keppel Street, London, UK.
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (Impact Factor: 5.94). 02/2006; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001530.pub2
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Head injury increases the body's metabolic responses, and therefore nutritional demands. Provision of an adequate supply of nutrients is associated with improved outcome. The best route for administering nutrition (parenterally (TPN) or enterally (EN)), and the best timing of administration (for example, early versus late) of nutrients needs to be established.
To quantify the effect on mortality and morbidity of alternative strategies of providing nutritional support following head injury.
Trials were identified by computerised searches of the Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, National Research Register, Web of Science and other electronic trials registers. Reference lists of trials and review articles were checked. The searches were last updated in July 2006.
Randomised controlled trials of timing or route of nutritional support following acute traumatic brain injury.
Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed trial quality. Information was collected on death, disability, and incidence of infection. If trial quality was unclear, or if there were missing outcome data, trialists were contacted in an attempt to get further information.
A total of 11 trials were included. Seven trials addressed the timing of support (early versus delayed), data on mortality were obtained for all seven trials (284 participants). The relative risk (RR) for death with early nutritional support was 0.67 (95% CI 0.41 to 1.07). Data on disability were available for three trials. The RR for death or disability at the end of follow-up was 0.75 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.11). Seven trials compared parenteral versus enteral nutrition. Because early support often involves parenteral nutrition, three of the trials are also included in the previous analyses. Five trials (207 participants) reported mortality. The RR for mortality at the end of follow-up period was 0.66 (0.41 to 1.07). Two trials provided data on death and disability. The RR was 0.69 (95% Cl 0.40 to 1.19). One trial compared gastric versus jejunal enteral nutrition, there were no deaths and the RR was not estimable.
This review suggests that early feeding may be associated with a trend towards better outcomes in terms of survival and disability. Further trials are required. These trials should report not only nutritional outcomes but also the effect on death and disability.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Data on energy requirements of patients with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) are scarce. The objective of this study was to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE) in critically ill patients with SICH and to compare it with the predicted basal metabolic rate (BMR). Methods: In 30 nonseptic patients with SICH, the REE was measured during the 10 first posthemorrhage days with the use of indirect calorimetry (IC). Predicted BMR was also evaluated by the Harris-Benedict (HB) equation. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between measured and predicted values. The possible effect of confounding factors (demographics, disease, and severity of illness score) on the evolution of continuous variables was also tested. Results: mean predicted BMR, calculated by the HB equation, was 1580.3 ± 262 kcal/d, while measured REE was 1878.9 ± 478 kcal/d (117.5% BMR). Compared with BMR, measured REE values showed a statistically significant increase at all studied points (P < .005). Measured and predicted values showed a good correlation (r = 0.73, P < .001), but the test of agreement between the 2 methods with the Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean bias (294.6 ± 265.6 kcal/d) and limits of agreement (-226 to 815.29 kcal/d) that were beyond the clinically acceptable range. REE values presented a trend toward increase over time (P = .077), reaching significance (P < .005) after the seventh day. Significant correlation was found between REE and temperature (P = .002, r = 0.63), as well as between REE and cortisol level (P = .017, r = 0.62) on the 10th day. No correlation was identified between REE and depth of sedation, as well as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II, Glasgow Coma Scale, and Hunt and Hess scores. Conclusions: During the early posthemorrhagic stage, energy requirements of critically ill patients with SICH are increased, presenting a trend toward increase over time. Compared with IC, the HB equation underestimates energy requirements and is inefficient in detecting individual variability of REE in this group of patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. KEYWORDS: calorimetry; critical care; nutrition; nutrition assessment; research and diseases; spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage PMID: 24928226 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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