Functional interaction between alpha2-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in the guinea pig myenteric plexus: effect of chronic desipramine treatment.
ABSTRACT The existence of a functional interplay between alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and opioid receptor inhibitory pathways modulating neurotransmitter release has been demonstrated in the enteric nervous system by development of sensitivity changes to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agents on enteric cholinergic neurons after chronic sympathetic denervation. In the present study, to further examine this hypothesis we evaluated whether manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor pathways by chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug, desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p. daily, for 21 days), could entail changes in enteric mu- and kappa-opioid receptor pathways in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig distal colon. In this region, subsensitivity to the inhibitory effect of both UK14,304 and U69,593, respectively alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, on the peristaltic reflex developed after chronic desipramine treatment. On opposite, in these experimental conditions, supersensitivity developed to the inhibitory effect of [D-Ala, N-Me-Phe4-Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), mu-opioid receptor agonist, on propulsion velocity. Immunoreactive expression levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly decreased in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig colon after chronic desipramine treatment. In these experimental conditions, mRNA levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly increased, excluding a direct involvement of transcription mechanisms in the regulation of receptor expression. Levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/3 and of inhibitory G(i/o) proteins were significantly reduced in the myenteric plexus after chronic treatment with desipramine. Such changes might represent possible molecular mechanisms involved in the development of subsensitivity to UK14,304 and U69,593 on the efficiency of peristalsis. Alternative molecular mechanisms, including a higher efficiency in the coupling between receptor activation and downstream intracellular effector systems, possibly independent from inhibitory G(i/o) proteins, may be accounted for the development of supersensitivity to DAMGO. Increased sensitivity to the mu-opioid agonist might compensate for the development of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor subsensitivity. On the whole, the present data further strengthen the concept that, manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenergic inhibitory receptor pathways in the enteric nervous system entails changes in opioid inhibitory receptor pathways, which might be involved in maintaining homeostasis as suggested for mu-opioid, but not for kappa-opioid receptors.
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ABSTRACT: Dysfunction in noradrenergic neurotransmission has long been theorized to occur in depressive disorders. The α(2) adrenergic receptor (AR) family, as a group of key players in regulating the noradrenergic system, has been investigated for involvement in the neurobiology of depression and mechanisms of antidepressant therapies. However, a clear picture of the α(2)ARs in depressive disorders has not been established due to the existence of apparently conflicting findings in the literature. In this article, we report that a careful accounting of methodological differences within the literature can resolve the present lack of consensus on involvement of α(2)ARs in depression. In particular, the pharmacological properties of the radioligand (e.g. agonist versus antagonist) utilized for determining receptor density are crucial in determining study outcome. Upregulation of α(2)AR density detected by radiolabeled agonists but not by antagonists in patients with depressive disorders suggests a selective increase in the density of high-affinity conformational state α(2)ARs, which is indicative of enhanced G protein coupling to the receptor. Importantly, this high-affinity state α(2)AR upregulation can be normalized with antidepressant treatments. Thus, depressive disorders appear to be associated with increased α(2)AR sensitivity and responsiveness, which may represent a physiological basis for the putative noradrenergic dysfunction in depressive disorders. In addition, we review changes in some key α(2)AR accessory proteins in depressive disorders and discuss their potential contribution to α(2)AR dysfunction.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 08/2012; 36(10):2214-2225. · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is involved in various functions, such as pigmentation, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions, development of melanoma, susceptibility to ultraviolet-induced sun damage, modification of oculocutaneous albinism, development of freckles, and mediation of female-specific mechanisms of analgesia. MC1R's natural agonists include α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotrophin (ACTH1-39), which are important components of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and increase in response to stress. Given the multiple relevant roles of MC1R, we studied whether the MC1R gene would be associated with susceptibility to major depressive disorder or with response to antidepressant treatment. The human MC1R gene is highly polymorphic; therefore, we sequenced the entire MC1R coding region of 1122 bp in 181 depressed Mexican-American patients and 185 Mexican-American controls. A total of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 15 known and eight new) were found within the sequenced region. Among the common SNPs, the nonsynonymous SNP, rs885479 (R163Q) was associated with the diagnosis of depression (P=0.04). The nonsynonymous SNP, rs2228479 (V92M) and the synonymous SNP, rs2228478 were found to be associated with the remission with desipramine treatment. No associations were found for remission with fluoxetine treatment or for the combined sample treated with fluoxetine or desipramine. The frequency of one (H2) of the five haplotypes identified was higher in depressed patients when compared with controls (P=0.05). In-silico functional analysis indicates that SNPs rs885479 and rs2228479 have significant impact on the protein function. The MC1R gene might be associated with major depressive disorder and with treatment response to desipramine.Psychiatric genetics 11/2010; 21(1):14-8. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic episodes lead to profound functional and structural alterations of the gastrointestinal tract which may contribute to disorders of intestinal motility. Enhancement of glutamate overflow and the consequent activation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors may participate to such changes by modulating different enteric neurotransmitter systems, including cholinergic motor pathways. The molecular mechanism/s underlying activation of NMDA receptors in the guinea pig ileum were investigated after glucose/oxygen deprivation (in vitro ischemia) and during reperfusion. The number of ileal myenteric neurons positive for NR1, the functional subunit of NMDA receptors, and its mRNA levels were unchanged after in vitro ischemia/reperfusion. In these conditions, the protein levels of NR1, and of its phosphorylated form by protein kinase C (PKC), significantly increased in myenteric neurons, whereas, the levels of NR1 phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) did not change, with respect to control values. Spontaneous glutamate overflow increased during in vitro ischemia/reperfusion. In these conditions, the NMDA receptor antagonists, D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid [(D)-AP5] (10 μmol L(-1)) and 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-diClKyn acid) (10 μmol L(-1)) and the PKC antagonist, chelerythrine (1 μmol L(-1)), but not the PKA antagonist, H-89 (1 μmol L(-1)), were able to significantly depress the increased glutamate efflux. The present data suggest that in the guinea pig ileum during in vitro ischemia/reperfusion, NR1 protein levels increase. Such event may rely upon posttranscriptional events involving NR1 phosphorylation by PKC. Increased NR1 levels may, at least in part, explain the ability of NMDA receptors to modulate a positive feedback on ischemia/reperfusion-induced glutamate overflow.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 02/2011; 23(2):e91-103. · 2.94 Impact Factor