Functional interaction between alpha2-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors in the guinea pig myenteric plexus: effect of chronic desipramine treatment.
ABSTRACT The existence of a functional interplay between alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and opioid receptor inhibitory pathways modulating neurotransmitter release has been demonstrated in the enteric nervous system by development of sensitivity changes to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agents on enteric cholinergic neurons after chronic sympathetic denervation. In the present study, to further examine this hypothesis we evaluated whether manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor pathways by chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug, desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p. daily, for 21 days), could entail changes in enteric mu- and kappa-opioid receptor pathways in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig distal colon. In this region, subsensitivity to the inhibitory effect of both UK14,304 and U69,593, respectively alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, on the peristaltic reflex developed after chronic desipramine treatment. On opposite, in these experimental conditions, supersensitivity developed to the inhibitory effect of [D-Ala, N-Me-Phe4-Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), mu-opioid receptor agonist, on propulsion velocity. Immunoreactive expression levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly decreased in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig colon after chronic desipramine treatment. In these experimental conditions, mRNA levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly increased, excluding a direct involvement of transcription mechanisms in the regulation of receptor expression. Levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/3 and of inhibitory G(i/o) proteins were significantly reduced in the myenteric plexus after chronic treatment with desipramine. Such changes might represent possible molecular mechanisms involved in the development of subsensitivity to UK14,304 and U69,593 on the efficiency of peristalsis. Alternative molecular mechanisms, including a higher efficiency in the coupling between receptor activation and downstream intracellular effector systems, possibly independent from inhibitory G(i/o) proteins, may be accounted for the development of supersensitivity to DAMGO. Increased sensitivity to the mu-opioid agonist might compensate for the development of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor subsensitivity. On the whole, the present data further strengthen the concept that, manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenergic inhibitory receptor pathways in the enteric nervous system entails changes in opioid inhibitory receptor pathways, which might be involved in maintaining homeostasis as suggested for mu-opioid, but not for kappa-opioid receptors.
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic episodes lead to profound functional and structural alterations of the gastrointestinal tract which may contribute to disorders of intestinal motility. Enhancement of glutamate overflow and the consequent activation of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors may participate to such changes by modulating different enteric neurotransmitter systems, including cholinergic motor pathways. The molecular mechanism/s underlying activation of NMDA receptors in the guinea pig ileum were investigated after glucose/oxygen deprivation (in vitro ischemia) and during reperfusion. The number of ileal myenteric neurons positive for NR1, the functional subunit of NMDA receptors, and its mRNA levels were unchanged after in vitro ischemia/reperfusion. In these conditions, the protein levels of NR1, and of its phosphorylated form by protein kinase C (PKC), significantly increased in myenteric neurons, whereas, the levels of NR1 phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA) did not change, with respect to control values. Spontaneous glutamate overflow increased during in vitro ischemia/reperfusion. In these conditions, the NMDA receptor antagonists, D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid [(D)-AP5] (10 μmol L(-1)) and 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid (5,7-diClKyn acid) (10 μmol L(-1)) and the PKC antagonist, chelerythrine (1 μmol L(-1)), but not the PKA antagonist, H-89 (1 μmol L(-1)), were able to significantly depress the increased glutamate efflux. The present data suggest that in the guinea pig ileum during in vitro ischemia/reperfusion, NR1 protein levels increase. Such event may rely upon posttranscriptional events involving NR1 phosphorylation by PKC. Increased NR1 levels may, at least in part, explain the ability of NMDA receptors to modulate a positive feedback on ischemia/reperfusion-induced glutamate overflow.Neurogastroenterology and Motility 02/2011; 23(2):e91-103. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dysfunction in noradrenergic neurotransmission has long been theorized to occur in depressive disorders. The α(2) adrenergic receptor (AR) family, as a group of key players in regulating the noradrenergic system, has been investigated for involvement in the neurobiology of depression and mechanisms of antidepressant therapies. However, a clear picture of the α(2)ARs in depressive disorders has not been established due to the existence of apparently conflicting findings in the literature. In this article, we report that a careful accounting of methodological differences within the literature can resolve the present lack of consensus on involvement of α(2)ARs in depression. In particular, the pharmacological properties of the radioligand (e.g. agonist versus antagonist) utilized for determining receptor density are crucial in determining study outcome. Upregulation of α(2)AR density detected by radiolabeled agonists but not by antagonists in patients with depressive disorders suggests a selective increase in the density of high-affinity conformational state α(2)ARs, which is indicative of enhanced G protein coupling to the receptor. Importantly, this high-affinity state α(2)AR upregulation can be normalized with antidepressant treatments. Thus, depressive disorders appear to be associated with increased α(2)AR sensitivity and responsiveness, which may represent a physiological basis for the putative noradrenergic dysfunction in depressive disorders. In addition, we review changes in some key α(2)AR accessory proteins in depressive disorders and discuss their potential contribution to α(2)AR dysfunction.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 08/2012; 36(10):2214-2225. · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The existence of a close relation between presynaptic inhibitory alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor pathways is well established. Such interplay may occur during chronic conditions that give rise to neuroadaptive changes involving both receptor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant drug, desipramine, on alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors in the guinea pig brain. Guinea pigs were treated with 10 mg/kg desipramine, injected i.p. for 21 days, every 24 h. The levels of expression of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors, the G protein receptor regulatory kinase, GRK2/3 and signal transduction inhibitory G proteins in synaptosomes of the guinea pig hippocampus and cortex were evaluated by immunoblotting. Quantitative analysis of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels has been carried out by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors and the respective mRNAs were found unchanged in the cortex, after chronic desipramine treatment. In these experimental conditions alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor levels decreased, while the relevant transcripts increased, in the hippocampus. GRK2/3 levels remained unchanged and increased, respectively, in the cortex and the hippocampus, after chronic exposure to desipramine. In the same experimental conditions, Galpha(i1), Galpha(i2), Galpha(o) and Galpha(z) levels remained unchanged, while Galpha(i3) levels decreased, in the cortex; whereas, Galpha(i1), Galpha(i2) and Galpha(i3) levels significantly increased, and Galpha(o) and Galpha(z) levels remained unchanged, in the hippocampus. On the whole, the present data suggest that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor expression and transcription are similarly influenced by chronic treatment with desipramine, in the guinea pig cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, alterations in the levels of regulatory GRK2/3 and of inhibitory signal transduction G proteins, relevant to activation of both receptor pathways, have been documented. The distinct pattern of adaptations of the different protein studied in response to chronic desipramine treatment in both regions is discussed.European Journal of Pharmacology 02/2008; 579(1-3):116-25. · 2.59 Impact Factor