The existence of a functional interplay between alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and opioid receptor inhibitory pathways modulating neurotransmitter release has been demonstrated in the enteric nervous system by development of sensitivity changes to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agents on enteric cholinergic neurons after chronic sympathetic denervation. In the present study, to further examine this hypothesis we evaluated whether manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor pathways by chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug, desipramine (10 mg/kg i.p. daily, for 21 days), could entail changes in enteric mu- and kappa-opioid receptor pathways in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig distal colon. In this region, subsensitivity to the inhibitory effect of both UK14,304 and U69,593, respectively alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor agonist, on the peristaltic reflex developed after chronic desipramine treatment. On opposite, in these experimental conditions, supersensitivity developed to the inhibitory effect of [D-Ala, N-Me-Phe4-Gly-ol5]-enkephalin (DAMGO), mu-opioid receptor agonist, on propulsion velocity. Immunoreactive expression levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly decreased in the myenteric plexus of the guinea pig colon after chronic desipramine treatment. In these experimental conditions, mRNA levels of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, mu- and kappa-opioid receptors significantly increased, excluding a direct involvement of transcription mechanisms in the regulation of receptor expression. Levels of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2/3 and of inhibitory G(i/o) proteins were significantly reduced in the myenteric plexus after chronic treatment with desipramine. Such changes might represent possible molecular mechanisms involved in the development of subsensitivity to UK14,304 and U69,593 on the efficiency of peristalsis. Alternative molecular mechanisms, including a higher efficiency in the coupling between receptor activation and downstream intracellular effector systems, possibly independent from inhibitory G(i/o) proteins, may be accounted for the development of supersensitivity to DAMGO. Increased sensitivity to the mu-opioid agonist might compensate for the development of alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor and kappa-opioid receptor subsensitivity. On the whole, the present data further strengthen the concept that, manipulation of alpha(2)-adrenergic inhibitory receptor pathways in the enteric nervous system entails changes in opioid inhibitory receptor pathways, which might be involved in maintaining homeostasis as suggested for mu-opioid, but not for kappa-opioid receptors.
"Desipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant, is also used to treat cocaine and alcohol dependence, neuropathic pain, and attention deficit disorder (Gawin et al., 1989). Desipramine was shown to mediate analgesia by blocking norepinephrine reuptake in diabetic neuropathy (Canciani et al., 2006). There was no association with remission with fluoxetine treatment, or with treatment response for the combined sample of patients treated with fluoxetine and desipramine. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) is involved in various functions, such as pigmentation, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions, development of melanoma, susceptibility to ultraviolet-induced sun damage, modification of oculocutaneous albinism, development of freckles, and mediation of female-specific mechanisms of analgesia. MC1R's natural agonists include α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and corticotrophin (ACTH1-39), which are important components of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis and increase in response to stress. Given the multiple relevant roles of MC1R, we studied whether the MC1R gene would be associated with susceptibility to major depressive disorder or with response to antidepressant treatment.
The human MC1R gene is highly polymorphic; therefore, we sequenced the entire MC1R coding region of 1122 bp in 181 depressed Mexican-American patients and 185 Mexican-American controls.
A total of 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, 15 known and eight new) were found within the sequenced region. Among the common SNPs, the nonsynonymous SNP, rs885479 (R163Q) was associated with the diagnosis of depression (P=0.04). The nonsynonymous SNP, rs2228479 (V92M) and the synonymous SNP, rs2228478 were found to be associated with the remission with desipramine treatment. No associations were found for remission with fluoxetine treatment or for the combined sample treated with fluoxetine or desipramine. The frequency of one (H2) of the five haplotypes identified was higher in depressed patients when compared with controls (P=0.05). In-silico functional analysis indicates that SNPs rs885479 and rs2228479 have significant impact on the protein function.
The MC1R gene might be associated with major depressive disorder and with treatment response to desipramine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is the 29th consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system, now spanning 30 years of research. It summarizes papers published during 2006 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurological disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of a close relation between presynaptic inhibitory alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor pathways is well established. Such interplay may occur during chronic conditions that give rise to neuroadaptive changes involving both receptor systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant drug, desipramine, on alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors in the guinea pig brain. Guinea pigs were treated with 10 mg/kg desipramine, injected i.p. for 21 days, every 24 h. The levels of expression of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors, the G protein receptor regulatory kinase, GRK2/3 and signal transduction inhibitory G proteins in synaptosomes of the guinea pig hippocampus and cortex were evaluated by immunoblotting. Quantitative analysis of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor mRNA levels has been carried out by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and mu-opioid receptors and the respective mRNAs were found unchanged in the cortex, after chronic desipramine treatment. In these experimental conditions alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor levels decreased, while the relevant transcripts increased, in the hippocampus. GRK2/3 levels remained unchanged and increased, respectively, in the cortex and the hippocampus, after chronic exposure to desipramine. In the same experimental conditions, Galpha(i1), Galpha(i2), Galpha(o) and Galpha(z) levels remained unchanged, while Galpha(i3) levels decreased, in the cortex; whereas, Galpha(i1), Galpha(i2) and Galpha(i3) levels significantly increased, and Galpha(o) and Galpha(z) levels remained unchanged, in the hippocampus. On the whole, the present data suggest that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and mu-opioid receptor expression and transcription are similarly influenced by chronic treatment with desipramine, in the guinea pig cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, alterations in the levels of regulatory GRK2/3 and of inhibitory signal transduction G proteins, relevant to activation of both receptor pathways, have been documented. The distinct pattern of adaptations of the different protein studied in response to chronic desipramine treatment in both regions is discussed.
European Journal of Pharmacology 02/2008; 579(1-3):116-25. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.10.007 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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