Keeping transcriptional activators under control.
ABSTRACT Transcriptional activators need to be modulated and eventually switched off after the initial event that triggers their activation. Here, we discuss how ubiquitination of activators and their proteasome-mediated turnover are crucial steps in this process.
Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2008; Volume(13):7184. DOI:10.2741/3220 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Plant immune responses against biotrophic pathogens are regulated by the signaling hormone salicylic acid (SA). SA establishes immunity by regulating a variety of cellular processes, including programmed cell death (PCD) to isolate and kill invading pathogens, and development of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) which provides long-lasting, broad-spectrum resistance throughout the plant. Central to these processes is post-translational modification of SA-regulated signaling proteins by ubiquitination, i.e. the covalent addition of small ubiquitin proteins. Emerging evidence indicates SA-induced protein ubiquitination is largely orchestrated by Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), which recruit specific substrates for ubiquitination using interchangeable adaptors. Ligation of ubiquitin chains interlinked at lysine 48 leads to substrate degradation by the 26S proteasome. Here we discuss how CRL-mediated degradation of both nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR) immune receptors and SA-induced transcription regulators are critical for functional PCD and SAR responses, respectively. By placing these recent findings in context of knowledge gained in other eukaryotic model species, we highlight potential alternative roles for processive ubiquitination in regulating the activity of SA-mediated immune responses.Frontiers in Plant Science 03/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2015.00154 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In complex, constantly changing environments, plants have developed astonishing survival strategies. These elaborated strategies rely on rapid and precise gene regulation mediated by transcription factors (TFs). TFs represent a large fraction of plant genomes and among them, MYBs and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLHs) have unique inherent properties specific to plants. Proteins of these two TF families can act as homo- or heterodimers, associate with proteins from other protein families, or form MYB/bHLH complexes to regulate distinct cellular processes. The ability of MYBs and bHLHs to interact with multiple protein partners has evolved to keep up with the increased metabolic complexity of multi-cellular organisms. Association and disassociation of dynamic TF complexes in response to developmental and environmental cues are controlled through a plethora of regulatory mechanisms specifically modulating TF activity. Regulation of TFs at the protein level is critical for efficient and precise control of their activity, and thus provides the mechanistic basis for a rapid on-and-off switch of TF activity. In this review, examples of post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and subcellular mobilization of TFs are discussed with regard to the relevance of these regulatory mechanisms for the specific activation of MYBs and bHLHs in response to a given environmental stimulus. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Molecular Plant 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.molp.2014.11.022 · 6.61 Impact Factor