The purpose of this study was to assess the genotype-phenotype of PINK1 mutations. We genotyped eight known mutations in three clinic-based cohorts with Parkinsonism and found one homozygous p.L347P mutation in PINK1. Clinically, hypo-osmia and profound diurnal variation of symptoms were identified as novel features; fluorodopa positron emission tomography revealed striking decline in striatal fluorodopa uptake. We suggest that it may be possible to clinically separate this form of Parkinsonism from dopa-responsive dystonia and Parkin-related Parkinsonism. Furthermore, as this mutation has only been reported in Filipinos (two originated from Luzon island), our results support the hypothesis of a common founder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyposmia is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has been variably detected in monogenic Parkinsonisms. To assess olfactory dysfunction in PINK1-related Parkinsonism, we evaluated olfactory detection threshold, odor discrimination, and odor identification in five groups of subjects: sporadic PD (n = 19), PINK1 homozygous (n = 7), and heterozygous (n = 6) parkinsonian patients, asymptomatic PINK1 heterozygous carriers (n = 12), and Italian healthy subjects (n = 67). All affected subjects and all healthy heterozygotes but one resulted hyposmic, with most patients in the range of functional anosmia or severe hyposmia. Detection threshold was more preserved and discrimination more impaired in patients with PINK1 mutations than in PD cases. Alterations of detection and discrimination were observed also in PINK1 asymptomatic heterozygotes. On the contrary, odor identification appeared to be mostly related to the disease status, as it was impaired in nearly all patients (including PD and PINK1 cases) and preserved in healthy heterozygotes. Our data indicate that olfactory dysfunction is common in PINK1 Parkinsonism and consists typically in defective odor identification and discrimination. A milder olfactory deficit, mostly involving discrimination, can be found in asymptomatic heterozygotes, possibly indicating an underlying preclinical neurodegenerative process.
Movement Disorders 12/2009; 24(16):2350-7. DOI:10.1002/mds.22816 · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In addition to pure PD and pure dystonic syndromes, there are a group of disorders with overlapping features. The differential diagnosis of these dystonia parkinsonism syndromes can be complex. In view of the growing list of recognized disorders and recent advances in genetics, we review the autosomal recessive forms of dystonia parkinsonism, summarizing clinical presentations, results of investigations, and response to treatment of gene-proven cases. We concentrate on PANK2-, PLA2G6-, ATP13A2-, FBX07, TAF1-, and PRKRA-associated neurodegeneration. Parkin, PINK1, and DJ-1 are also briefly reviewed.
Movement Disorders 03/2009; 24(4):490-9. DOI:10.1002/mds.22314 · 5.68 Impact Factor
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