To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa.
"In obese women, paternal and maternal overprotection decrease emotional awareness and increase emotional eating (Rommel et al., 2012). The " low care/high control " pattern of parental bonding is also associated with eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia (Canetti, Kanyas, Lerer, Latzer, & Bachar, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006; Fujimori et al., 2011; Lobera, Rios, & Casals, 2011; Swanson et al., 2010; Turner, Rose, & Cooper, 2005). Poor mother–infant interactions, characterized by maternal intrusiveness and negative infant engagement have been described for children born small for gestational age (SGA) (Feldman & Eidelman, 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/objectives:
While most "fetal programming" area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal-child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children.
Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother-child interactions were scored during a structured task. A GLM adjusted for BMI examined the interaction between the "Atmosphere" score (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ.
There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = -2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months).
IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal-child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother-infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR.
"In comparison to non-victimized youth, cyberbullied youth report more sadness, anxiety and fear (Beran & Li, 2008); have difficulty with social interactions (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2006; Blais, 2008); are more likely to be engaged in risky behavior such as drug and alcohol use (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010) and eating disorders (DeHue, Bolman, & Völlink, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006). On this basis, social and emotional functioning is likely to have a mediating impact on the relationship between bullying and educational outcomes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed.
"Encountering bullying behavior is one of the most distressing experiences for children and adolescents, particularly when such behaviors occur over a prolonged period of time [1,2]. Bullying behavior is strongly associated with a number of detrimental cognitive, psychological, health, and behavioral outcomes that can persist into adulthood [3,4]. Although researchers have studied bullying since the 1970s , few measures of children’s functioning related to bullying exist. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until recently, researchers have studied forms of bullying separately. For 40 years, research has looked at the traditional forms of bullying, including physical (eg, hitting), verbal (eg, threats), and social (eg, exclusion). Attention focused on cyberbullying in the early 2000s. Although accumulating research suggests that bullying has multiple negative effects for children who are targeted, these effects excluded cyberbullying from the definition of bullying.
This paper responds to the need for a multidimensional measure of the impact of various forms of bullying. We used a comprehensive definition of bullying, which includes all of its forms, to identify children who had been targeted or who had participated in bullying. We then examined various ways in which they were impacted.
We used an online method to administer 37 impact items to 377 (277 female, 100 male) children and youth, to develop and test the Bullying and Health Experience Scale.
A principal components analysis of the bullying impact items with varimax rotation resulted in 8 factors with eigenvalues greater than one, explaining 68.0% of the variance. These scales include risk, relationships, anger, physical injury, drug use, anxiety, self-esteem, and eating problems, which represent many of the cognitive, psychological, and behavioral consequences of bullying. The Cronbach alpha coefficients for the 8 scales range from .73 to .90, indicating good inter-item consistency. Comparisons between the groups showed that children involved in bullying had significantly higher negative outcomes on all scales than children not involved in bullying.
The high Cronbach alpha values indicate that the 8 impact scales provide reliable scores. In addition, comparisons between the groups indicate that the 8 scales provide accurate scores, with more negative outcomes reported by children involved in bullying compared to those who are not involved in bullying. This evidence of reliability and validity indicates that these scales are useful for research and clinical purposes to measure the multidimensional experiences of children who bully and are bullied.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.