Childhood maltreatment in adult female psychiatric outpatients with eating disorders
ABSTRACT To explore possible relations between maltreatment in childhood and subsequent eating disorders in adult life, 107 consecutive adult psychiatric female outpatients were screened for eating disorders. They also completed questionnaires about harassment by adults and bullying by peers in childhood. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire measured childhood abuse by parents or other adults, and the Parental Bonding Instrument captured parental coldness and overprotection. Bullying by peers was measured by an inventory used in schools. Outpatients who met the criteria for bulimia nervosa reported far more bullying by peers, more coldness and overprotection from fathers, and more childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuse. The findings suggest associations between childhood maltreatment, especially bullying by peers, and bulimia nervosa.
- SourceAvailable from: Patricia Pelufo Silveira
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- "In obese women, paternal and maternal overprotection decrease emotional awareness and increase emotional eating (Rommel et al., 2012). The " low care/high control " pattern of parental bonding is also associated with eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia (Canetti, Kanyas, Lerer, Latzer, & Bachar, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006; Fujimori et al., 2011; Lobera, Rios, & Casals, 2011; Swanson et al., 2010; Turner, Rose, & Cooper, 2005). Poor mother–infant interactions, characterized by maternal intrusiveness and negative infant engagement have been described for children born small for gestational age (SGA) (Feldman & Eidelman, 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives: While most “fetal programming” area focused on metabolic disease, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is also associated with a preference for less healthy food. Post-natal factors such as strained maternal–child interactions are equally related to obesogenic eating behaviors. We investigated if IUGR and the quality of the mother/child relationship affect emotional overeating in children. Subjects/Methods: Participants were 196 children from a prospective birth cohort (the MAVAN project). As part of the protocol at 4 years of age, mothers completed the Children Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) and mother–child interactions were scored during a structured task (ATM) task, sex and IUGR on the emotional over-eating domain of the CEBQ. Results: There was a significant interaction of BWR vs. sex vs. ATM (P = .02), with no effects of IUGR, sex or ATM. The model was significant for girls with low ATM scores (B = −2.035, P = .014), but not for girls with high (P = 0.94) or boys with high (P = .27) or low (P = .19) ATM scores. Only in IUGR girls, 48 months emotional over-eating correlated with BMI at that age (r = 0.560, P = 0.013) and predicted BMI in the subsequent years (r = 0.654, P = 0.006 at 60 months and r = 0.750, P = 0.005 at 72 months). Conclusions: IUGR and exposure to a negative emotional atmosphere during maternal–child interactions predicted emotional overeating in girls but not in boys. The quality of mother–infant interaction may be an important target for interventions to prevent emotional overeating and overweight in early development, particularly in girls with a history of IUGR.Appetite 10/2014; 81:337–342. DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2014.06.107 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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- "In comparison to non-victimized youth, cyberbullied youth report more sadness, anxiety and fear (Beran & Li, 2008); have difficulty with social interactions (Ybarra, Mitchell, Wolak, & Finkelhor, 2006; Blais, 2008); are more likely to be engaged in risky behavior such as drug and alcohol use (Mishna, Cook, Gadalla, Daciuk, & Solomon, 2010) and eating disorders (DeHue, Bolman, & Völlink, 2008; Fosse & Holen, 2006). On this basis, social and emotional functioning is likely to have a mediating impact on the relationship between bullying and educational outcomes. "
ABSTRACT: This purpose of this paper is to identify risk profiles of youth who are victimized by on- and offline harassment and to explore the consequences of victimization on school outcomes. Latent class analysis is used to explore the overlap and co-occurrence of different clusters of victims and to examine the relationship between class membership and school exclusion and delinquency. Participants were a random sample of youth between the ages of 12 and 18 selected for inclusion to participate in the 2011 National Crime Victimization Survey: School Supplement. The latent class analysis resulted in four categories of victims: approximately 3.1% of students were highly victimized by both bullying and cyberbullying behaviors; 11.6% of youth were classified as being victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and cyberbullying; a third class of students were victims of relational bullying, verbal bullying and physical bullying but were not cyberbullied (8%); the fourth and final class, characteristic of the majority of students (77.3%), was comprised of non-victims. The inclusion of covariates to the latent class model indicated that gender, grade and race were significant predictors of at least one of the four victim classes. School delinquency measures were included as distal outcomes to test for both overall and pairwise associations between classes. With one exception, the results were indicative of a significant relationship between school delinquency and the victim subtypes. Implications for these findings are discussed.Child Abuse & Neglect 08/2014; xxx. DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.08.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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- "Third, we did not include a healthy control group and cannot, therefore, compare CT prevalence in a clinical and a nonclinical population within our catchment area. However, in previous studies, the rate for child maltreatment in the general population has been estimated to be around 11% for SA and 24% for PA in a large (N = 2869) UK sample , with even lower scores reported in a smaller (N = 160) sample in Norway . A prevalence of CT as high as 82% supports the findings of other recent studies that indicates higher rates of CT in patients with severe mental disorders compared with the general population . "
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Childhood trauma (CT) is a major risk factor for various psychiatric disorders. We wanted to determine the prevalence of CT in a catchment area-based sample of schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorder (including bipolar disorder and depressive episodes with psychotic features) and to explore potential differences in types of CT between the diagnostic groups. METHOD: Three hundred five patients were recruited consecutively from psychiatric units at 3 major hospitals in Oslo, Norway, diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Traumatic childhood events were assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent of the patients had experienced one or more CT events, the most frequent subtype of trauma being emotional neglect. The schizophrenia spectrum group reported significantly more physical abuse and physical neglect than the affective group. CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of CT in patients with severe mental disorder was detected. This reminds us of the importance of exploring this issue when we treat such patients. The mechanisms behind these differences are unclear. Further research is needed to study potential associations between CT and the clinical picture of the disorder.Comprehensive psychiatry 08/2012; 54(2). DOI:10.1016/j.comppsych.2012.06.009 · 2.26 Impact Factor