Corrigendum to "Risk assessment on disinfection by-products of drinking water of different water sources and disinfection processes" (vol 33, pg 219, 2007)

Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS Beijing 100101, China.
Environment International (Impact Factor: 5.56). 03/2007; 33(2):219-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2006.09.009
Source: PubMed


The occurrences of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetics (HAAs) in the water supply in Beijing and Canada were investigated. The concentrations of THMs and HAAs in Beijing and Canada were below the maximum contaminant levels specified by the USEPA and WHO standards. The multi-pathway risk assessment (assessed through oral ingestion, dermal absorption and inhalation exposure to drinking water) was used to assess the cancer risk and the hazard index of THMs and HAAs from fifteen waterworks in Beijing, China and three treatment plants using different disinfection processes in Canada. Residents in Beijing and residents who were served by three treatment plants using different disinfection processes in Canada had a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the other two pathways. The cancer risk resulted from disinfection by-products (DBPs) was 8.50E-05(for males), 9.25E-05(for females) in Beijing, China, while it was 1.18E-04, 1.44E-04 in Canada. The risk was higher when water treatment plants used surface water source than when they used ground water source and mixture water source in Beijing. The risk showed different changes in three treatment plants using different disinfection processes in Canada. The lifetime cancer risk for THMs followed the order: Plant 2>Plant 1>Plant 3. And, the lifetime cancer risk for HAAs was: Plant 1>Plant 2>Plant 3.

Download full-text


Available from: Linsheng Yang,
73 Reads
  • Source
    • "In this study, a deterministic approach to human health risk assessment was used based on the United States Environmental Protection Agency guidelines (USEPA 1999, 2002) and recently adopted by many researchers (Lee et al. 2004; Uyak 2006; Wang et al. 2007b). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The main objectives of this study were to investigate the concentration and lifetime cancer risk and hazard index of trihalomethanes (THMs) through multiple routes like oral ingestion, dermal absorption, and inhalation exposure in the water samples collected at water treatment plant endpoints. Bromoform has been found in highest concentration followed by chloroform. A lesser concentration of dibromochloromethane has been found than dichlorobromomethane in most of the studied water, which is an unusual scenario, in spite of the high concentration of bromide in the water which can be attributed to the formation, speciation, and distribution of THMs in the breakpoint chlorination curve. Among the three pathways studied, inhalation contributed 80-90% of the total risk followed by oral exposure and dermal contact. Chloroform was found to be the major THM which is having cancer risk in its gaseous form whereas bromoform contributed highest cancer risk through oral ingestion. The average hazard index of total THMs through oral route was higher than unity, indicating high noncarcinogenic risk. The discrepancy between the three exposure pathways may be attributed to different concentration and speciation of THMs present in the waters. The sensitivity analysis by tornado diagram confirmed the highest positive impact of chloroform to the total cancer risk and, indirectly, confirmed inhalation as the major pathway of exposure. This study suggests the modification of the regulatory issues related to THMs based on the health risk associated with each THM and exposure pathway.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 07/2011; 178(1-4):121-34. DOI:10.1007/s10661-010-1677-z · 1.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin B12 absorption may be impaired in the setting of hypochlorohydria, and studies have suggested a link between use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and the occurrence of B12 deficiency. We aimed to investigate PPI use as a cause of B12 deficiency. We performed a case controlled retrospective observational study. Medical inpatients aged 65 years and older were eligible for inclusion. Vitamin B12 deficient cases (serum B12 < 150 pmol/l) were randomly selected from the preceding year, and age and sex matched non-B12 deficient controls (serum B12 > 300 pmol/l) selected at a ratio of 4:1. Case notes were reviewed for the presence or absence of chronic (> 1 year) PPI use. Of the 3431 estimations of vitamin B12 status, 168 subjects with B12 deficiency were identified. The case notes of 59 cases and 218 matched controls were reviewed. Twenty-two (35.3%) vitamin B12 deficient cases and 82 (37.6%) controls were taking a PPI. Current use of PPI was not associated with vitamin B12 deficiency (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.53–1.60). There was no association between PPI dose or duration of therapy and risk of B12 deficiency. Vitamin B12 absorption may be impaired in the setting of hypochlorohydria. However in this older hospital population, vitamin B12 deficiency was not associated with chronic use of PPIs.
    European geriatric medicine 09/2011; 2(4). DOI:10.1016/j.eurger.2011.02.007 · 0.73 Impact Factor
Show more