Significant proportions of with reduced intracellular nuclear transport proteins mobilities resolved by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

Department of Molecular, Microbial and Structural Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut, United States
Journal of Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 3.96). 02/2007; 365(1):50-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.09.089
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nuclear transport requires freely diffusing nuclear transport proteins to facilitate movement of cargo molecules through the nuclear pore. We analyzed dynamic properties of importin alpha, importin beta, Ran and NTF2 in nucleus, cytoplasm and at the nuclear pore of neuroblastoma cells using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Mobile components were quantified by global fitting of autocorrelation data from multiple cells. Immobile components were quantified by analysis of photobleaching kinetics. Wild-type Ran was compared to various mutant Ran proteins to identify components representing GTP or GDP forms of Ran. Untreated cells were compared to cells treated with nocodazole or latrunculin to identify components associated with cytoskeletal elements. The results indicate that freely diffusing importin alpha, importin beta, Ran and NTF2 are in dynamic equilibrium with larger pools associated with immobile binding partners such as microtubules in the cytoplasm. These findings suggest that formation of freely diffusing nuclear transport intermediates is in competition with binding to immobile partners. Variation in concentrations of freely diffusing nuclear transport intermediates among cells indicates that the nuclear transport system is sufficiently robust to function over a wide range of conditions.

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    ABSTRACT: The selectivity and speed of many biological transport processes transpire from a 'reduction of dimensionality' that confines diffusion to one or two dimensions instead of three. This behaviour remains highly sought after on polymeric surfaces as a means to expedite diffusional search processes in molecular engineered systems. Here, we have reconstituted the two-dimensional diffusion of colloidal particles on a molecular brush surface. The surface is composed of phenylalanine-glycine nucleoporins (FG Nups)-intrinsically disordered proteins that facilitate selective transport through nuclear pore complexes in eukaryotic cells. Local and ensemble-level experiments involving optical trapping using a photonic force microscope and particle tracking by video microscopy, respectively, reveal that 1-µm-sized colloidal particles bearing nuclear transport receptors called karyopherins can exhibit behaviour that varies from highly localized to unhindered two-dimensional diffusion. Particle diffusivity is controlled by varying the amount of free karyopherins in solution, which modulates the multivalency of Kap-binding sites within the molecular brush. We conclude that the FG Nups resemble stimuli-responsive molecular 'velcro', which can impart 'reduction of dimensionality' as a means of biomimetic transport control in artificial environments.
    Nature Nanotechnology 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/nnano.2014.103 · 33.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intrinsically disordered Phe-Gly nucleoporins (FG Nups) within nuclear pore complexes exert multivalent interactions with transport receptors (Karyopherins (Kaps)) that orchestrate nucleocytoplasmic transport. Current FG-centric views reason that selective Kap translocation is promoted by alterations in the barrier-like FG Nup conformations. However, the strong binding of Kaps with the FG Nups due to avidity contradicts rapid Kap translocation in vivo. Here, using surface plasmon resonance, we innovate a means to correlate in situ mechanistic (molecular occupancy and conformational changes) with equilibrium (binding affinity) and kinetic (multivalent binding kinetics) aspects of Karyopherinβ1 (Kapβ1) binding to four different FG Nups. A general feature of the FxFG domains of Nup214, Nup62, and Nup153 is their capacity to extend and accommodate large numbers of Kapβ1 molecules at physiological Kapβ1 concentrations. A notable exception is the GLFG domain of Nup98, which forms a partially penetrable cohesive layer. Interestingly, we find that a slowly exchanging Kapβ1 phase forms an integral constituent within the FG Nups that coexists with a fast phase, which dominates transport kinetics due to limited binding with the pre-occupied FG Nups at physiological Kapβ1 concentrations. Altogether, our data reveal an emergent Kap-centric barrier mechanism that may underlie mechanistic and kinetic control in the nuclear pore complex.
    Biophysical Journal 04/2014; 106(8):1751-62. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2014.02.021 · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transport channel of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) contains a high density of intrinsically disordered proteins that are rich in phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat motifs (FG Nups). The FG Nups interact promiscuously with various nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), such as karyopherins (Kaps), that mediate the trafficking of nucleocytoplasmic cargoes while also generating a selectively permeable barrier against other macromolecules. Although the binding of NTRs to FG Nups increases molecular crowding in the NPC transport channel, it is unclear how this impacts FG Nup barrier function or the movement of other molecules, such as the Ran importer NTF2. Here, we use surface plasmon resonance to evaluate FG Nup conformation, binding equilibria, and interaction kinetics associated with the multivalent binding of NTF2 and karyopherinβ1 (Kapβ1) to Nsp1p molecular brushes. NTF2 and Kapβ1 show different long- and short-lived binding characteristics that emerge from varying degrees of molecular retention and FG repeat binding avidity within the Nsp1p brush. Physiological concentrations of NTF2 produce a collapse of Nsp1p brushes, whereas Kapβ1 binding generates brush extension. However, the presence of prebound Kapβ1 inhibits Nsp1p brush collapse during NTF2 binding, which is dominated by weak, short-lived interactions that derive from steric hindrance and diminished avidity with Nsp1p. This suggests that binding promiscuity confers kinetic advantages to NTF2 by expediting its facilitated diffusion and reinforces the proposal that Kapβ1 contributes to the integral barrier function of the NPC. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


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