Benefits of human milk and donor milk for premature infants

Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.
Early Human Development (Impact Factor: 1.79). 01/2007; 82(12):781-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.09.009
Source: PubMed


Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. While human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk may not meet the expanded nutrient requirements of the very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) premature infant. Human milk fortifiers are available to provide optimum nutrition. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of human milk for the premature infant.

Download full-text


Available from: Howard Heiman, May 22, 2014
430 Reads
  • Source
    • "The lipids are also susceptible to various types of chemical reactions , enzymatic or non-enzymatic. Oxidation is one of the main reactions; can occur in the presence or absence of oxygen and is catalyzed by light, heat, heavy metals, free radicals or irradiation, leading to the formation of toxic compounds (peroxides) (Heiman and Schandler, 2006; Hamosh, 1998; Bretillon et al., 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Human Milk Bank undergo human milk to pasteurization , followed by storage in a freezer at-18° C for up to six months to thus keep available the stocks of this product in maternal and infant hospitals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing on the lipid fraction of human milk. A sample of human milk was obtained from a donor and was subdivided into ten sub-samples that was subjected to the following treatments: LC = raw milk; T0 = milk after pasteurization; T30 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 30 days; T60 = milk after pasteurization and freeze for 60 days, and so on every 30 days until T240 = milk after pasteurization and freezing for 240 days, with 3 repetitions for each treatment. Lipids were extracted, methylated and fatty acid profiles determined by gas chromatography. The fatty acids were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and functional groups were identified by in-frared spectroscopy. There were variations in the concentration of fatty acids. For unsaturated fatty acids there was increasing trend in their concentrations. The IR and NMR analyze characterized and identified functional groups presents in fatty acids. Resumen Los Bancos de Leche Humana someten la leche la pasteurización, seguido del almacenamiento en un con-gelador a-18 grados por até seis meses, para así dispo-nerlo a los Hospitales Materno Infantiles. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del procesamiento de la fracción lipídica de la leche humana. Para esto, una muestra obtenida de una donante y sometida a diez di-ferentes tratamientos: LC = leche cruda; TO = leche después de la pasteurización; T30 = leche después de la pasteurización y congelación por 30 días; T60 = leche después de la pasteurización y congelación por 60 días y así sucesivamente a cada 30 días hasta T240 = leche después de la pasteurización y congelación por 240 días, con tres repeticiones a cada tratamiento. Los lípidos fue-ron extraídos y los ácidos grasos metilados fueron deter-minados por cromatografía gaseosa. Los ácidos grasos fueron caracterizados por resonancia magnética nuclear y los grupos funcionales identificados por espectroscopia infrarroja. Hubo variaciones en las concentraciones de ácidos grasos. Para los ácidos grasos insaturados hubo un aumento en sus concentraciones. Sin embargo, los grupos funcionales se caracterizaron por espectroscopia infrarroja y resonancia magnética nuclear, RMN.
  • Source
    • "Following preterm birth, the " fetal enteral diet " , amniotic fluid, is replaced with variable combinations of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and advancing volumes of enteral milk diet. It is well recognized that early intake of a minimal amount of human breast milk ( " colostrum " ) protects against NEC while infant formula is a suboptimal diet (Grave et al., 2007; Heiman and Schanler, 2006; Sisk et al., 2007). In support of these findings, recent studies have shown that maternal milk has the capacity to influence neonatal microbial recognition by beneficial modulation of TLR-mediated responses, while infant formula fails to have this effect (LeBouder et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, primarly neonatal rodents and pigs. The rodent models using rats and mice have provided a much of the experimental evidence showing the protective influence of breast milk and the role of specific molecular mechanisms involved in the premature innate immune and intestinal injury response. A key advantage of mice is the abilty to test how genetic disruption of specific genes alters the NEC phenotype. More recently, pigs have emerged as an animal model of NEC and used to establish the role of bacterial colonization, prematurity, parenteral nutrition and antibiotic therapy. This review will outline some of the advantages and disadvantages of both rodent and pig models and highlight the lessons learned about NEC pathobiology from these different experimental models.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 06/2014; 159(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.vetimm.2014.02.012 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nonlinear characteristics of power electronic circuits bring about unusual instabilities. Three major types have been reported. Their characteristics and consequences are examined. Unbounded instability, the most familiar type, is a characteristic of some circuit configurations of many converters. Chattering is a potentially destructive instability mode not predicted by some idealized models. Chaotic instability can be nondestructive
    Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, 1990. APEC '90, Conference Proceedings 1990., Fifth Annual; 04/1990
Show more