Benefits of maternal and donor human milk for premature infants.

Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Schneider Children's Hospital at North Shore, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.
Early Human Development (Impact Factor: 2.02). 01/2007; 82(12):781-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2006.09.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nutrition support of the premature infant must be designed to compensate for metabolic and gastrointestinal immaturity, immunologic insufficiency, and the demands of associated medical conditions. The beneficial effects of human milk extend to the feeding of premature infants. While human milk enhances immunity, nutritional concerns arise because the milk may not meet the expanded nutrient requirements of the very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) premature infant. Human milk fortifiers are available to provide optimum nutrition. This review summarizes the benefits and limitations of human milk for the premature infant.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm infants are usually breastfed less than full-term infants, and successful breastfeeding requires a supportive environment and special efforts from their mothers. A breastfeeding peer-support group, utilising social media, was developed for these mothers in order to support them in this challenge. Mothers were able to discuss breastfeeding and share experiences. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants based on the postings in peer-support group discussions in social media. The actively participating mothers (n = 22) had given birth <35 gestational weeks. They were recruited from one university hospital in Finland. The social media postings (n = 305) were analysed using thematic analysis. A description of the process of breastfeeding a preterm infant from the point of view of a mother was created. The process consisted of three main themes: the breastfeeding paradox in hospital, the 'reality check' of breastfeeding at home and the breastfeeding experience as part of being a mother. The mothers encountered paradoxical elements in the support received in hospital; discharge was promoted at the expense of breastfeeding and pumping breast milk was emphasised over breastfeeding. After the infant's discharge, the over-optimistic expectations of mothers often met with reality - mothers did not have the knowledge or skills to manage breastfeeding at home. Successful breastfeeding was an empowering experience for the mothers, whereas unsuccessful breastfeeding induced feelings of disappointment. Therefore, the mothers of preterm infants need evidence-based breastfeeding counselling and systematic support in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and at home.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 02/2014; · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We assessed the effect of human milk (HM) fortification with extra protein supplement by an adjustable protein fortification method according to the weekly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels on growth in hospitalized preterm infants. A prospective observational intervention study in 58 preterms born ≤32weeks of gestation and fed with breast milk was conducted. Preterms who were given a commercial HM fortifier which provides an additional protein of 0.8g/3 scales according to the standard feeding strategy served as a historical control group. Infants who were given extra protein in addition to the HM fortifier with another commercial protein supplement which provides an additional protein of 2.2g/1 scale comprised the intervention group. Additional protein supplementation was adjusted according to BUN levels weekly in the intervention group. Weight gain velocities (g/kg/day), length, head circumferences (HC) gain velocities (mm/day) and daily growth indexes for weight, height and HC (percentage per day) were calculated. The median amount of daily enteral protein intake [4 (3.4-4.6) vs. 2.78 (2.1-3.1) g/kg/day, p<0.0001] was significantly higher in the interventional group. Length (p=0.008) and HC (p<0.0001) gain velocities were significantly higher in the intervention group. Daily growth indexes for weight (2.2% vs. 1.8%, p=0.026), for length (0.4% vs. 0.3%, p=0.027) and for HC (0.48% vs. 0.36% per day, p=0.003) were significantly higher in the intervention group. A higher protein intake by adjustable protein fortification method without energy or volume change leads to improved postnatal in-hospital-growth in very low birth weight infants.
    Early human development 09/2013; · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, primarly neonatal rodents and pigs. The rodent models using rats and mice have provided a much of the experimental evidence showing the protective influence of breast milk and the role of specific molecular mechanisms involved in the premature innate immune and intestinal injury response. A key advantage of mice is the abilty to test how genetic disruption of specific genes alters the NEC phenotype. More recently, pigs have emerged as an animal model of NEC and used to establish the role of bacterial colonization, prematurity, parenteral nutrition and antibiotic therapy. This review will outline some of the advantages and disadvantages of both rodent and pig models and highlight the lessons learned about NEC pathobiology from these different experimental models.
    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 01/2014; · 1.88 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014