The intestinal microvasculature as a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease.
ABSTRACT Chronic inflammation is a complex biologic process which involves immune as well as non-immune cells including the microvasculature and its endothelial lining. Growing evidence suggests that the microvasculature plays an integral role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis). The microvasculature contributes to chronic inflammation through altered leukocyte recruitment, impaired perfusion, and angiogenesis leading to tissue remodeling. These diverse areas of IBD microvascular biology represent therapeutic targets that are currently undergoing investigation.
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ABSTRACT: We tested whether adenosine, a cytoprotective mediator and trigger of preconditioning, could protect endothelial cells from inflammation-induced deficits in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. We examined this question using human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to TNFα. TNFα produced time and dose-dependent decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential, cellular ATP levels, and mitochondrial mass, preceding an increase in apoptosis. These effects were prevented by co-incubation with adenosine, a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a guanylate cyclase (GC) activator, or a cell-permeant cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog. The effects of adenosine were blocked by a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), or siRNA knockdown of the transcriptional coactivator, PGC-1α. Incubation with exogenous NO, a GC activator, or a cGMP analog reversed the effect of eNOS knockdown, while the effect of NO was blocked by inhibition of GC. The protective effects of NO and cGMP analog were prevented by siRNA to PGC-1α. TNFα also decreased expression of eNOS, cellular NO levels, and PGC-1α expression, which were reversed by adenosine. Exogenous NO, but not adenosine, rescued expression of PGC-1α in cells in which eNOS expression was knocked down by eNOS antisense treatment. Thus, TNFα elicits decreases in endothelial mitochondrial function and mass, and an increase in apoptosis. These effects were reversed by adenosine, an effect mediated by eNOS-synthesized NO, acting via soluble guanylate cyclase/cGMP to activate a mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory program under the control of PGC-1α. These results support the existence of an adenosine-triggered, mito-and cytoprotective mechanism dependent upon an eNOS-PGC-1α regulatory pathway, which acts to preserve endothelial mitochondrial function and mass during inflammatory challenge.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e98459. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives:Microvascular endothelial dysfunction characterizes ulcerative colitis (UC), the most widespread form of inflammatory bowel disease. Intestinal mucosal microvessels in UC display aberrant expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and increased inflammatory cell recruitment. Propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), an ester of L-carnitine required for the mitochondrial transport of fatty acids, ameliorates propionyl-CoA bioavailability and reduces oxidative stress in ischemic tissues. The present study aimed to document the efficacy of anti-oxidative stress properties of PLC in counteracting intestinal microvascular endothelial dysfunction and inflammation.Methods:To evaluate the efficacy in vivo, we analyzed the effects in intestinal biopsies of patients with mild-to-moderate UC receiving oral PLC co-treatment and in rat TNBS-induced colitis; in addition, we investigated antioxidant PLC action in TNF-α-stimulated human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) in vitro.Results:Four-week PLC co-treatment reduced intestinal mucosal polymorph infiltration and CD4(+) lymphocytes, ICAM-1(+) and iNOS(+) microvessels compared with placebo-treated patients with UC. Oral and intrarectal administration of PLC but not L-carnitine or propionate reduced intestinal damage and microvascular dysfunction in rat TNBS-induced acute and reactivated colitis. In cultured TNF-α-stimulated HIMECs, PLC restored β-oxidation and counteracted NADPH oxidase 4-generated oxidative stress-induced CAM expression and leukocyte adhesion. Inhibition of β-oxidation by L-aminocarnitine increased reactive oxygen species production and PLC beneficial effects on endothelial dysfunction and leukocyte adhesion. Finally, PLC reduced iNOS activity and nitric oxide accumulation in rat TNBS-induced colitis and in HIMEC cultures.Conclusions:Our results show that the beneficial antioxidant effect of PLC targeting intestinal microvasculature restores endothelial β-oxidation and function, and reduces mucosal inflammation in UC patients.Clinical and translational gastroenterology. 03/2014; 5:e55.
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ABSTRACT: Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables that has known chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. Thus far, the antiangiogenic activity of AITC has not been reported in in vivo studies. Herein, we investigated the effect of AITC on angiogenesis and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis. Experimental colitis was induced in mice by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium via drinking water. To monitor the activity of AITC in this model, we measured body weight, disease activity indices, histopathological scores, microvascular density, myeloperoxidase activity, F4/80 staining, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in the mice. We found that AITC-treated mice showed less weight loss, fewer clinical signs of colitis, and longer colons than vehicle-treated mice. AITC treatment also significantly lessened the disruption of colonic architecture that is normally associated with colitis and repressed the microvascularization response. Further, AITC treatment reduced both leukocyte recruitment and macrophage infiltration into the inflamed colon, and the mechanism these activities involved repressing iNOS and COX-2 expression. Finally, AITC attenuated the expression of VEGF-A and VEGFR2. Thus, AITC may have potential application in treating conditions marked by inflammatory-driven angiogenesis and mucosal inflammation.PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102975. · 3.53 Impact Factor