Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy following chemoradiation therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan.
Radiation Medicine 09/2006; 24(7):515-9. DOI: 10.1007/s11604-006-0059-5
Source: PubMed


Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy (DNL) is a potentially fatal complication of treatment involving intrathecal administration of chemotherapeutic agents such as methotrexate (MTX) alone or in combination with cranial radiotherapy (RT). We describe a case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with high-dose intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate combined with craniospinal RT resulting in DNL. Typical MR imaging features of progressive deep white matter lesions showing a characteristic pattern of enhancement after contrast was seen in this case. Deep white matter lesions with ring-like enhancement and calcifications were seen on CT; it showed a mass effect at one stage, which is not typical for DNL. Long-term clinical and imaging follow-up were helpful for the diagnosis in this case.

1 Follower
29 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Treatment has improved but relapsed ALL remains more common than new cases of many 'common' paediatric malignancies. We have salvage regimens with substantial complete remission (CR) rates and increasing access to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but most patients who relapse die. We need better therapies. Insights into pharmacology may guide more effective use of existing agents. Novel agents with activity against resistant lymphoblasts offer an appealing strategy. However, most candidate agents fail, despite enthusiastic investigators, intriguing mechanisms of action and 'compelling' preclinical data. A number of existing combinations provide a 40% complete response rate in second or third relapse. Yet survival in third remission is <10%. Novel agents must, most likely, be integrated into multiagent combinations that provide a higher CR rate or better quality CR's than our conventional combinations in order to contribute substantially to cure. The march from bench to bedside requires careful consideration of the intermediate steps.
    British Journal of Haematology 12/2005; 131(5):579-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05773.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is being increasingly diagnosed in children and adolescents. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of MS in the pediatric population are similar to adult-onset disease, with some important distinctions. Case vignettes, recently published clinical definitions, and an approach to disorders considered in the differential diagnoses are provided in this article. Immunomodulatory therapies approved for use in adults with MS are safe and well-tolerated in children, although monitoring of liver function is of particular importance. Finally, this article presents recent research studies performed in an MS population for whom disease onset occurs in unique temporal proximity to the events involved in MS pathogenesis.
    Seminars in Neurology 03/2008; 28(1):69-83. DOI:10.1055/s-2007-1019129 · 1.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is widely performed for both neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease. Before BMT, patients are prepared with high-dose chemotherapy, frequently associated with total-body radiation, to destroy residual malignant cells and to reduce immunologic resistance. BMT is associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications secondary to underlying disease, prolonged myelosuppression, and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. These complications include infections, vascular disease, drug-induced neurotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and post-BMT carcinogenesis. The immune status of children after BMT can be divided into three phases: the pre-engraftment period (days 0-30 after BMT), the post-engraftment period (days 30-100), and the late phase (after day 100). The timing of CNS complications that occur after BMT, as for complications in other organs, can be described with reference to these three phases of immune status. It is essential that radiologists become familiar with the relationships between the immune status of the recipient and the times of onset of these disorders, and with the neuroimaging patterns associated with the various complications. CNS complications can be life-threatening for immunosuppressed children, so accurate diagnosis is important for prompt and appropriate treatment.
    European Radiology 06/2008; 18(10):2048-59. DOI:10.1007/s00330-008-1000-3 · 4.01 Impact Factor
Show more