The distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments along the Egyptian Mediterranean coast.

Environmental Division, National Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Kayet Bay, Alexandria, Egypt.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (Impact Factor: 1.68). 02/2007; 124(1-3):343-59. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-006-9231-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coastal marine sediment samples were collected from 31 sampling stations along the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. All sediment samples were analyzed to determine aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as total organic carbon (TOC) contents and grain size analysis. Total concentrations of 16 EPA-PAHs in the sediments were varied from 88 to 6338 ng g(-1) with an average value of 154 ng g(-1) (dry weight). However, the concentrations of total aliphatic were varied from 1.3 to 69.9 ng g(-1) with an average value of 15.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight). The highest contents of PAHs were found in the Eastern harbor (6338 ng g(-1)), Manzala (5206 ng g(-1)) and El-Jamil East (4895 ng g(-1)) locations. Good correlations observed between a certain numbers of PAH concentrations allowed to identify its origin. The average total organic carbon (TOC) percent was varied from 0.91 to 4.54%. Higher concentration of total pyrolytic hydrocarbons ( summation operatorCOMB) than total fossil hydrocarbons ( summation operatorPHE) declared that atmospheric fall-out is the significant source of PAHs to marine sediments of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. The selected marked compounds, a principal component analysis (PCA) and special PAHs compound ratios (phenanthrene/anthracene vs fluoranthene/pyrene; summation operatorCOMB/ summation operatorEPA-PAHs) suggest the pyrogenic origins, especially traffic exhausts, are the dominant sources of PAHs in most locations. Interferences of rather petrogenic and pyrolytic PAH contaminations were noticed in the harbors due to petroleum products deliveries and fuel combustion emissions from the ships staying alongside the quays.


Available from: Ahmed El Nemr, May 28, 2015
1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Taking as a case study the Basque coastal area, and in order to delve into the knowledge of the sources and the distribution and dispersion patterns of contaminants in sediments, the following objectives have been defined in the present Thesis: (i) to identify the relevant sources of heavy metals and PAHs; (ii) to assess the spatial distribution of these contaminants; (iii) to analyze the dispersion dynamics of riverine particulated Pb, under mean climatological conditions; and (iv) to assess the suitability of the used methodology and obtained results in supporting the assessment and management processes required under current European marine legislation. For that end, multivariate statistics, GIS-mapping techniques and numerical modelling tools have been combined. This approach has permitted the identification of processes related to the origin, distribution and dispersion of sedimentary contaminants at small- and large-spatial scales. At small-spatial scales, point contaminant sources are predominant. The small-spatial scale variability of contaminant distribution is determined by the proximity to these point sources and by changes in hydromorphological conditions. At large-spatial scales, diffuse sources show a primary importance: these relate to the geological composition of the basins and factors associated with urban development. On the shelf, the prevailing hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes favour the stable redistribution of heavy metals and PAHs. The results obtained in this Thesis provide a complete viewpoint of the processes and activities involved in the origin, distribution and dispersion of contaminants. Therefore, they can be considered as being an interesting source of scientific knowledge under current European marine legislation (Water Framework Directive and Marine Strategy Framework Directive) and can be used for environmental management purposes.
    09/2014, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Dr. Ibon Galparsoro, Dr. Joana Larreta
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected in water and sediment samples collected from three mariculture zones in China's northern Yellow Sea. In these samples, total PAH concentrations ranged from 110.8ng/L to 997.2ng/L and 142.2ng/gdry weight (dw) to 750.2ng/gdw, respectively. The log KOC values of the various PAH compounds examined in this study increased with the log KOW values, which is consistent with the prediction regarding PAH behavior in the environment. However, these KOC values were lower than the predicted values as a result of the effects of organic matters, which were abundant in the mariculture water. The isomeric ratios of the PAHs in sediment indicated that the source of the PAHs in the mariculture zones were mainly pyrolytic. The TEQ(carc) values of PAHs ranged from 7ng TEQ/gdw to 92ng TEQ/gdw, and only a few samples met the safe criterion with respect to individual PAH concentrations.
    Marine Pollution Bulletin 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.05.055 · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbon were analyzed in sediments collected from the Suez Gulf, Aqaba Gulf and the Red Sea proper stations Egypt. A geological study demonstrated that the sediments in the studied area have a nature from very fine sand to very coarse sand, mainly biogenic fragments, and carbonate aggregates. Total aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (C14–C32) ranged from 33.97 to 553.48 ng/g with a mean value of 174.8 ± 167.06. The highest and lowest alkane concentrations are recorded at El-Tour and Ras Mohamed, respectively. Accordingly, the variation in n-alkanes content may refer to the anthropogenic sources (sewage, industrial discharges, and shipping activities) and natural inputs (submerged/floating macrophytes and emergent terrestrial plants and microbial activity). Meanwhile, ΣPAH concentrations were in the range of 0.74–456.91 ng/g, with the mean value of 32.94 ng/g. The highest concentration of total PAHs is recorded in sediments collected from El-Quseir (456.91 ng/g), followed by that in Sharm El Mayaa (100.05 ng/g) and Suez 10 (97.19 ng/g); while lower concentrations are detected in Sheraton (0.74 ng/g), Ras Mohamed and Na’ama Bay (0.74, 6.86 and 11.1 ng/g, respectively). In this context, ratio of low molecular weight of PAHs (2- and 3-rings) to high (4- to 6-rings) has been used to differentiate between the pyrogenic and petrogenic sources of PAHs in the studied samples. In all studied stations, ΣLPAHs/ΣHPAHs ratios were <1, revealing their pyrogenic sources. The concentration levels of PAHs in the current study were compared to the effect range low (ERL) and the effect range medium (ERM) values; the average concentration of level of PAHs for all investigated stations was below the ERL except El-Quseir station which recorded PAHs higher than the ERL but still lower than the ERM. This finding indicated that PAHs in surface sediments of the studied area have no adverse biological effects except at El-Quseir which may cause mild adverse biological effects but not acute effects. To assess the potential health risk of PAHs; the BaP equivalent (BaPE) is used. High levels of BaPE values were found at El-Quseir only, indicating that PAHs in this site showed relatively high toxicity among all sites. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) of seven carcinogenic PAHs (BaA, BbF, BkF, BaP, Chr, DBA and InP), were used to quantitatively assess the potential toxicological significance to human health. In this study, the toxic equivalent (TEQcarc) values of sediment samples varied from not detected (ND) to 72.27 ng TEQ g−1, with the mean value of 2.94 ng TEQ g−1. The higher total TEQcarc values were found at El-Quseir Station 72.27 ng TEQ g−1.
    12/2014; 71(4). DOI:10.1016/j.ejar.2014.11.003