Gallbladder management during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery: Routine preoperative screening for gallstones and postoperative prophylactic medical treatment are not necessary
Section of Minimally Invasive and Bariatric Surgery, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California, USA.The American surgeon (Impact Factor: 0.82). 11/2006; 72(10):857-61.
In the bariatric surgery literature, the optimum approach to the gallbladder is controversial. Recommendations range from concomitant cholecystectomy to selective screening and postoperative medical prophylaxis. At our institution, we have taken a highly selective approach where patients are not routinely screened for gallstones, nor are they medically treated postoperatively with bile salts. We have reviewed our experience with this approach. From January 2003 to January 2005, 407 laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypasses were performed at UCLA and postoperative outcomes were collected into a prospective database. Exclusion criteria included previous cholecystectomy, a follow-up period less than 6 months, or incomplete records. One hundred ninety-nine patients were included in the study. With a mean follow up period of 17.8 months, 12 (6%) patients required cholecystectomy for gallstone-induced pathology. Laparoscopic removal was performed in 11 (92%) patients. Indications for surgery included acute cholecystitis in five (2.5%) patients, gallstone pancreatitis in two (1%) patients, and biliary colic alone in another five (2.5%) patients. The incidence of symptomatic gallstones requiring cholecystectomy after laparoscopic Roux en Y gastric bypass is low. These results are similar to those from institutions where routine preoperative screening and prophylactic postoperative medical therapy is used. Routine preoperative screening or medical prophylaxis may not be necessary.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural history of patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) with known asymptomatic cholelithiasis in whom prophylactic cholecystectomy was not performed at the time of surgery. The records of 144 consecutive patients from a single year experience in RYGBP surgery at the University of California, Davis Medical Center were reviewed. Patients undergoing RYGBP were routinely screened for cholelithiasis by ultrasound. Patients who did not have cholecystectomy were managed with ursodiol for 6 months postoperatively. 13 males (9.0%) and 131 females (91%) underwent RYGBP. The mean age was 43 years (SD 8.55), and mean BMI was 46 kg/m2 (SD 6.5). The comorbidities of our patient population included diabetes (14%), hypertension (48%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (50%), dyslipidemia (35%), obstructive sleep apnea (31%), and musculoskeletal complaints (69%). 22 patients were diagnosed with cholelithiasis by ultrasonography preoperatively. 9 of these patients (41%) were symptomatic and underwent concurrent cholecystectomy and RYGBP. The remaining 13 patients (59%) had asymptomatic cholelithiasis preoperatively but did not undergo cholecystectomy at the time of surgery. Only one of these asymptomatic patients eventually developed symptoms necessitating cholecystectomy at up to 1 year follow-up. Our data suggest that it may not be absolutely indicated to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy at the time of RYGBP surgery for asymptomatic cholelithiasis. We believe that this phenomenon needs to be further studied in a randomized trial.Obesity Surgery 07/2007; 17(6):747-51. DOI:10.1007/s11695-007-9138-7 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The feasibility and value of transthoracic dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients scheduled for bariatric surgery has not been investigated. We evaluated 611 patients (86.6% female, 42 +/- 10 years, 136 +/- 18 kg, BMI 48.0 +/- 6.1 kg/m2) referred for DSE prior to surgery between February 2000 and July 2005. Mortality and major cardiovascular events (cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome, and urgent revascularization) were recorded 30-days postoperatively and at 6 months. Adequate baseline imaging quality was achieved in 590 patients (96.6%), with use of echocardiographic contrast agents in 426 patients (72.2%); the remaining 21 patients (3.4%) were referred for alternative preoperative testing. There were no serious adverse events during DSE, which was negative in 545 patients (92.4%). The test was inconclusive in 38 patients (6.4%), requiring alternative investigations, and positive in 7 patients (1.2%). Eventually, 595 patients proceeded to surgery: 539 with DSE-based risk stratification and 56 with risk stratification based on alternative testing. Laparoscopic procedures were employed in 77.0% of patients. There were 3 perioperative deaths, all attributed to sepsis (perioperative mortality 0.50%), but no major cardiovascular events at 30-days. One patient (evaluated prior to surgery with alternative testing) experienced an acute coronary syndrome during the following 6 months (event rate 0.17%). Transthoracic DSE is feasible and safe in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery; implementation of echocardiographic contrast agents allows for adequate imaging quality in the majority of these patients. However, the very low risk of contemporary bariatric procedures questions the need for routine preoperative stress testing in asymptomatic patients.Obesity Surgery 12/2007; 17(11):1475-81. DOI:10.1007/s11695-008-9425-y · 3.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Preoperative evaluation and treatment of biliary lithiasis in morbid obese patients who are candidates to bariatric surgery raise a series of questions which to date has no clear consensus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of routine preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and selective cholecystectomy comparing patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) with and without simultaneous cholecystectomy. The prospective database of all the patients who underwent laparoscopic RYGBP in our institution was reviewed. The demographic characteristics, comorbidities, operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative complications were analyzed. From August 2001 to December 2006, 1,311 patients underwent laparoscopic RYGBP, 137 (10.4%) of them were excluded due to previous cholecystectomy. In 128 (10.9%) of the remaining 1,174 patients, a cholecystectomy associated to laparoscopic RYGBP was performed. The mean age was 38.5 +/- 10.1 years, and 106 (82.8%) were women. The mean operative time in patients with and without simultaneous cholecystectomy was 129.8 +/- 45 and 108.5 +/- 43 min, respectively (p < 0.001). The hospital stay was 3.6 +/- 0.8 days in patients with simultaneous cholecystectomy and 4 +/- 3 days in patients without simultaneous cholecystectomy (p = 0.003). There were no deaths. Postoperative complications were observed in 9 (7%) and 73 (6.9%) patients with and without simultaneous cholecystectomy respectively (p = NS). Postoperative complications were not related to the cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy associated to laparoscopic RYGBP should be considered in all patients with preoperative ultrasound diagnosis of cholelithiasis.Obesity Surgery 01/2008; 18(1):47-51. DOI:10.1007/s11695-007-9262-4 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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