Activation of p53-dependent growth suppression in human cells by mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA.

Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University School of Medicine, 3970 Reservoir Road NW, NRB E304, Washington, DC 20057, USA.
Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 02/2007; 27(2):662-77. DOI: 10.1128/MCB.00537-06
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In an effort to identify genes whose expression is regulated by activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling, we performed microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative reverse transcription-PCR on an isogenic set of PTEN gene-targeted human cancer cells. Numerous p53 effectors were upregulated following PTEN deletion, including p21, GDF15, PIG3, NOXA, and PLK2. Stable depletion of p53 led to reversion of the gene expression program. Western blots revealed that p53 was stabilized in HCT116 PTEN(-/-) cells via an Akt1-dependent and p14(ARF)-independent mechanism. Stable depletion of PTEN in untransformed human fibroblasts and epithelial cells also led to upregulation of p53 and senescence-like growth arrest. Simultaneous depletion of p53 rescued this phenotype, enabling PTEN-depleted cells to continue proliferating. Next, we tested whether oncogenic PIK3CA, like inactivated PTEN, could activate p53. Retroviral expression of oncogenic human PIK3CA in MCF10A cells led to activation of p53 and upregulation of p53-regulated genes. Stable depletion of p53 reversed these PIK3CA-induced expression changes and synergized with oncogenic PIK3CA in inducing anchorage-independent growth. Finally, targeted deletion of an endogenous allele of oncogenic, but not wild-type, PIK3CA in a human cancer cell line led to a reduction in p53 levels and a decrease in the expression of p53-regulated genes. These studies demonstrate that activation of PI3K signaling by mutations in PTEN or PIK3CA can lead to activation of p53-mediated growth suppression in human cells, indicating that p53 can function as a brake on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate-induced mitogenesis during human cancer pathogenesis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine differentiation of tumor tissue has been recognized as an important prerequisite for new targeted therapies. To evaluate the suitability of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissue for these treatment approaches and to find a possible link to pretherapeutic conditions of other targeted strategies, we compared neuroendocrine differentiation and KRAS/NRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA/TP53 mutational status in primary and metastatic CRC. Immunohistochemical expression analysis of neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin was performed on archival CRC tissue, comprising 116 primary tumors, 258 lymph node metastases and 72 distant metastases from 115 patients. All CRC samples but 30 distant metastases were subjected to mutation analysis of KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53. Neuroendocrine marker expression was found significantly less frequently in lymph node metastases compared to primary tumors and distant metastases (20%, 31%, 28%, respectively, P = 0.044). KRAS mutation rates increased significantly from primary tumors to lymph node metastases and distant metastases within the neuroendocrine negative CRC group (44%, 53%, 64%, respectively, P = 0.042). Neuroendocrine differentiation was significantly less concordant than KRAS/NRAS/BRAF/PIK3CA/TP53 mutational status in primary tumor/lymph node metastases pairs (65% versus 88%-99%; P < 0.0001) and primary tumor/distant metastases pairs (64% versus 83%-100%; P = 0.027 and P < 0.0001, respectively). According to these data, therapeutic targeting of neuroendocrine tumor cells can be considered only for a subset of CRC patients and biopsies from the metastatic site should be used to guide therapy. A possible importance of lacking neuroendocrine differentiation for progression of KRAS mutant CRC should be further investigated.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 01/2014; 7(9):5927-39.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract The effectiveness of DNA damaging chemotherapy drugs can be limited by activation of survival signaling pathways and cell cycle checkpoints that allow DNA repair. Targeting survival pathways and inhibiting cell cycle checkpoints may increase chemotherapy-induced cancer cell killing. AKT and Chk1 are survival and cell cycle checkpoint kinases, respectively, that can be activated by DNA damage. Cisplatin (CP) is a standard chemotherapy agent for osteosarcoma (OS). CP induced apoptosis to varying extents and activated AKT and Chk1 in multiple p53 wild-type and p53-null OS cell lines. A Chk1 inhibitor increased CP-induced apoptosis in all OS cell lines regardless of p53 status. In contrast, an AKT inhibitor increased CP-induced apoptosis only in p53 wild-type OS cells, but not p53 nulll cells. The increased apoptosis in p53 wild-type cells was coincident with decreased p53 protein levels, but increased expression of p53-responsive apoptotic genes Noxa and PUMA. Further studies revealed the inability of AKT inhibitor to CP-sensitize p53-null OS cells resulted from two things: 1) AKT inhibition stabilized/maintained p27 levels in CP-treated cells, which then mediated a protective G1-phase cell cycle arrest, 2) AKT inhibition increased the levels of activated Chk1. Finally, schedule dependent inhibition of AKT and Chk1 evaded the protective G1 arrest mediated by p27 and maximized CP-induced OS cell killing. These data demonstrate AKT and Chk1 activation promote survival in CP-treated OS cells, and that strategic, scheduled targeting of AKT and Chk1 can maximize OS cell killing by CP.
    Cancer biology & therapy 09/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor PTEN controls genomic stability and inhibits tumorigenesis. The N-terminal phosphatase domain of PTEN antagonizes the PI3K/AKT pathway, but its C-terminal function is less defined. Here, we describe a knockin mouse model of a nonsense mutation that results in the deletion of the entire Pten C-terminal region, referred to as Pten(ΔC). Mice heterozygous for Pten(ΔC) develop multiple spontaneous tumors, including cancers and B cell lymphoma. Heterozygous deletion of the Pten C-terminal domain also causes genomic instability and common fragile site rearrangement. We found that Pten C-terminal disruption induces p53 and its downstream targets. Simultaneous depletion of p53 promotes metastasis without influencing the initiation of tumors, suggesting that p53 mainly suppresses tumor progression. Our data highlight the essential role of the PTEN C terminus in the maintenance of genomic stability and suppression of tumorigenesis.
    Cell Reports 02/2014; · 7.21 Impact Factor


Available from