Occurrence of ocular disease in traumatic brain injury in a selected sample: a retrospective analysis.
ABSTRACT To determine retrospectively the relative risk of ocular disease in a selected, visually-symptomatic sample of clinic patients having traumatic brain injury (TBI; n=160) vs. cerebrovascular accident (CVA; n=60), with all initially presenting at the clinic with symptoms and/or signs of vision dysfunction.
To review retrospectively 220 medical records of individuals with TBI (n=160) vs. CVA (n=60), as determined by a computer-based query spanning the years 2000-2003, to ascertain the frequency of occurrence of ocular disease in the two major sub-groups of acquired brain injury.
Conditions with high relative risk unique to TBI included corneal abrasion, blepharitis, chalazion/hordeolum, dry eye, traumatic cataract, vitreal prolapse and optic atrophy. This is distinct from those ophthalmic conditions unique to CVA, which included sub-conjunctival haemorrhage and ptosis.
These new findings should alert clinicians to the potential increased frequency of occurrence of specific ocular diseases in a selected, visually-symptomatic population with TBI and their associated rehabilitative and quality-of-life implications.
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the prevalence of convergence insufficiency (CI) with and without simultaneous vision dysfunctions within the traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample population because although CI is commonly reported with TBI, the prevalence of concurrent visual dysfunctions with CI in TBI is unknown. A retrospective analysis of 557 medical records from TBI civilian patients was conducted. Patients were all evaluated by a single optometrist. Visual acuity, oculomotor function, binocular vision function, accommodation, visual fields, ocular health, and vestibular function were assessed. Statistical comparisons between the CI and non-CI, as well as inpatient and outpatient subgroups, were conducted using χ and Z tests. Approximately 9% of the TBI sample had CI without the following simultaneous diagnoses: saccade or pursuit dysfunction; third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerve palsy; visual field deficit; visual spatial inattention/neglect; vestibular dysfunction; or nystagmus. Photophobia with CI was observed in 16.3% (21 of 130), and vestibular dysfunction with CI was observed in 18.5% (24 of 130) of the CI subgroup. Convergence insufficiency and cranial nerve palsies were common and yielded prevalence rates of 23.3% (130 of 557) and 26.9% (150 of 557), respectively, within the TBI sample. Accommodative dysfunction was common within the nonpresbyopic TBI sample, with a prevalence of 24.4% (76 of 314). Visual field deficits or unilateral visual spatial inattention/neglect was observed within 29.6% (80 of 270) of the TBI inpatient subgroup and was significantly more prevalent compared with that of the outpatient subgroup (p < 0.001). Most TBI patients had visual acuities of 20/60 or better in the TBI sample (85%; 473 of 557). Convergence insufficiency without simultaneous visual or vestibular dysfunctions was observed in about 9% of the visually symptomatic TBI civilian population studied. A thorough visual and vestibular examination is recommended for all TBI patients.Optometry and vision science: official publication of the American Academy of Optometry 12/2012; 89(12):1740-51. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence about the health and quality-of-life outcomes of injuries is obtained mainly from follow-up studies of surviving trauma patients; population-based studies are rarer, in particular for countries in Eastern Europe. This study examines the incidence, prevalence and social variation in non-fatal injuries resulting in activity limitations and outcomes of injuries in Estonia. A retrospective population-based study. Estonia. 7855 respondents of the face-to-face interviews of the second round of the Estonian Family and Fertility Survey conducted between 2004 and 2005 based on the nationally representative probability sample (n=11 192) of the resident population of Estonia aged 20-79. The cumulative incidence and prevalence of injuries leading to activity limitations was estimated. Survival models were applied to analyse variations in the injury risk across sociodemographic groups. The association between injuries and the development of chronic conditions and quality of life was examined using survival and logistic regression models. 10% (95% CI 9.4 to 10.7) of the population aged 20-79 had experienced injuries leading to activity limitations; the prevalence of activity limitations due to injuries was 4.4% (95% CI 3.9% to 4.9%). Significant differences in injury risk were associated with gender, education, employment, marital status and nativity. Limiting injury was associated with a doubling of the likelihood of having chronic conditions (adjusted HR 1.97, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.46). Injury exhibited a statistically significant negative association with most quality-of-life measures. Although reduced, these effects persisted after recovery from activity limitations. Substantial variation in injury risk across population groups suggests potential for prevention. Men and workers in manual occupations constitute major target groups for injury prevention in Estonia. The association of injury with the development of chronic conditions and reduced quality of life warrants further investigation.BMJ Open 07/2013; 3(7). · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: This article reviews literature regarding individuals with traumatic brain injury who have vision related impairments up to one year, post-injury. Such impairments may impact rehabilitation of activities of daily living and mobility since vision is integral in much of what one does on a daily basis. Methods: Search of Medline, Ovid, and PubMed was performed using terms including: traumatic brain injury, visual deficits after brain injury, vision and traumatic brain injury, and ADLs after brain injury. Results: Eighteen studies were analyzed and reviewed. A range of visual and visual-motor impairments are seen across the severity of traumatic brain injury. Visual impairment negatively impacts independence in mobility and activities of daily living. Common sensorimotor visual symptoms reported by those with traumatic brain injury include blurred vision, reading problems, double vision or eyestrain, dizziness or disequilibrium in visually-crowded environments, visual field defects, light sensitivity, and color blindness. Conclusions: This review should alert the reader to common visual complaints and defects seen after traumatic brain injury. It is important to screen persons who have suffered traumatic brain injury for sensorimotor vision deficits early on in recovery so that these issues may be addressed and recovery of function and independence in the community are not delayed.Brain Injury 08/2012; 26(11):1338-59. · 1.51 Impact Factor