Cardiovascular outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Trial.
ABSTRACT Patients with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) events.
We randomly assigned 1,094 African Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis (glomerular filtration rate [GFR], 20 to 65 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [0.33 to 1.08 mL/s]) to initial antihypertensive treatment with either: (1) a beta-blocker, metoprolol; (2) an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ramipril; or (3) a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, and either a usual-blood pressure (BP) or low-BP treatment goal. Using a design powered to detect renal outcome differences, we compared the effect of treatment on the CV event rate (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) during a mean follow-up period of 4.1 years and determined baseline factors that predict CV outcomes.
Thirty-one patients died of CV disease (0.7%/patient-year), and 149 patients experienced at least 1 CV outcome (3.3%/patient-year). Overall, 202 CV events (4.5%/patient-year) occurred. The CV outcome rate was not related significantly to randomized interventions. In multivariable analyses, 7 baseline risk factors remained independently associated with increased risk for the CV composite outcome after controlling for age, sex, baseline GFR, and baseline proteinuria group: pulse pressure, duration of hypertension, abnormal electrocardiogram result, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, serum urea nitrogen level, urine protein-creatinine ratio, urine sodium-potassium ratio, and annual income less than 15,000 dollars.
Neither randomized class of antihypertensive therapy nor BP level had a significant effect on the occurrence of CV events, possibly because of limited power. However, this analysis identifies unique and potentially modifiable CV risk factors in this high-risk cohort.
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ABSTRACT: The Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that for the same blood-pressure control, valsartan would reduce cardiac morbidity and mortality more than amlodipine in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk. 15?245 patients, aged 50 years or older with treated or untreated hypertension and high risk of cardiac events participated in a randomised, double-blind, parallel-group comparison of therapy based on valsartan or amlodipine. Duration of treatment was event-driven and the trial lasted until at least 1450 patients had reached a primary endpoint, defined as a composite of cardiac mortality and morbidity. Patients from 31 countries were followed up for a mean of 4.2 years. Blood pressure was reduced by both treatments, but the effects of the amlodipine-based regimen were more pronounced, especially in the early period (blood pressure 4.0/2.1 mm Hg lower in amlodipine than valsartan group after 1 month; 1.5/1.3 mm Hg after 1 year; p<0.001 between groups). The primary composite endpoint occurred in 810 patients in the valsartan group (10.6%, 25.5 per 1000 patient-years) and 789 in the amlodipine group (10.4%, 24.7 per 1000 patient-years; hazard ratio 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.15, p=0.49). The main outcome of cardiac disease did not differ between the treatment groups. Unequal reductions in blood pressure might account for differences between the groups in cause-specific outcomes. The findings emphasise the importance of prompt blood-pressure control in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk.The Lancet 06/2004; 363(9426):2022-31. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular risk associated with early renal insufficiency is unknown. Clinicians are often reluctant to use angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with renal insufficiency. To determine whether mild renal insufficiency increases cardiovascular risk and whether ramipril decreases that risk. Post hoc analysis. The Heart Outcomes and Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) study, a randomized, double-blind, multinational trial involving 267 study centers. 980 patients with mild renal insufficiency (serum creatinine concentration >/= 124 micromol/L [>/=1.4 mg/dL]) and 8307 patients with normal renal function (serum creatinine concentration < 124 micromol/L [<1.4 mg/dL]) Patients with a baseline serum creatinine concentration greater than 200 micromol/L (2.3 mg/dL) were excluded. The primary outcome measure was incidence of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Cumulative incidence of the primary outcome was higher in patients with renal insufficiency than in those without (22.2% vs. 15.1%; P < 0.001) and increased with serum creatinine concentration. Patients with renal insufficiency had a substantially increased risk for cardiovascular death (11.4% vs. 6.6%) and total mortality (17.8% vs. 10.6%) (P < 0.001 for both comparisons). The effect of renal insufficiency on the primary outcome (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.16 to 1.69]) was independent of known cardiovascular risks and treatment. Ramipril reduced the incidence of the primary outcome in patients with and those without renal insufficiency (hazard ratio, 0.80 vs. 0.79; P > 0.2 for the difference). In patients who had preexisting vascular disease or diabetes combined with an additional cardiovascular risk factor, mild renal insufficiency significantly increased the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Ramipril reduced cardiovascular risk without increasing adverse effects.Annals of internal medicine 04/2001; 134(8):629-36. · 13.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An epidemiological study on the relationship between 24 hour urinary sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and creatinine (Creat), as obtained from the INTERSALT study, and cerebrovascular disease (CVA) mortality in the age-standardised group 45-74 years, was conducted using data from 25 countries worldwide. A significant positive relationship was observed by multivariate analysis between cerebrovascular disease mortality and 24 hour urinary Na excretion in men, with Na/K ratio in women and with Na/Creat ratio in all groups. A significant negative correlation was found between the 24 hour urinary magnesium excretion and CVA mortality in men and in men and women averaged, while 24 hour urinary potassium excretion correlated significantly and negatively with CVA mortality in women. No significant relationship between systolic and diastolic blood pressure, 24 hour urinary calcium excretion and BMI with CVA mortality could be established. A log10 transformation revealed a significant positive relationship between Ca/Mg ratio with CVA mortality in men as well as in the group of men and women averaged. A significant negative correlation between CVA mortality and 24 hour creatinine excretion was found. This relationship was stronger in men and could point to a protective effect of protein intake. The findings also point to a direct relationship between dietary cation intake and CVA mortality.Journal of Human Hypertension 03/1992; 6(1):17-21. · 2.82 Impact Factor