Induction of indefinite survival of fully mismatched cardiac allografts and generation of regulatory cells by sarpogrelate hydrochloride
ABSTRACT At initiation of the immunologic response, platelets rapidly release chemical mediators such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) and cytokines. Sarpogrelate hydrochloride (SH), a selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonist, is used to treat patients with peripheral arterial disease. We investigated the effect of SH on the alloimmune response in a murine cardiac transplantation model.
CBA mice underwent transplantation of a C57BL/10 heart and received a short course of SH treatment. Survival of the allograft was recorded. An adoptive transfer study was performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Immunohistochemistry studies of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), histological, cell-proliferation, and cytokine assessments were performed.
Untreated CBA mice rejected C57BL/10 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 8 days). In mice given 10 mg/kg of SH, all allografts survived indefinitely (MST, >100 days); these mice also had significantly prolonged survival of donor-specific skin grafts but acute rejection of third-party skin grafts. Secondary CBA recipients given not only whole but also CD4 splenocytes from primary SH-treated CBA recipients with C57BL/10 cardiac allograft had indefinite survival of C57BL/10 hearts (MST, >100 days). SH inhibited upregulation of ICAM-1 on endothelial cells in the allografts. Graft acceptance and hyporesponsiveness were confirmed by the histological and cell-proliferation studies, respectively. Production of interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 from splenocytes of SH-treated transplant recipients increased compared to that from splenocytes of untreated recipients.
SH induced indefinite survival of fully allogeneic cardiac allografts, generated CD4 regulatory cells, inhibited ICAM-1 expression in the allografts, and upregulated IL-4 and IL-10 production.
SourceAvailable from: Waliul I Khan[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Serotonin or 5- hydoxytryptamine (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and hormone that contributes to the regulation of various physiological functions by its actions in the central nervous system (CNS), and in the respective organ systems. Peripheral 5-HT is predominantly produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These gut resident cells produce much more 5-HT than all neuronal and other sources combined, establishing EC cells as the main source of this biogenic amine in the human body. Peripheral 5-HT is also a potent immune modulator and affects various immune cells through its receptors and via the recently identified process of serotonylation. Alterations in 5-HT signalling have been described in inflammatory conditions of the gut, such inflammatory bowel disease. The association between 5-HT and inflammation, however, is not limited to the gut; as changes in 5-HT levels have also been reported in patients with allergic airway inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on searches for terms such as “5-HT,” “EC cell,” “immune cells,” and “inflammation” in pubmed. gov as well as by utilizing pertinent reviews, the current review aims to provide an update on the role of 5-HT in biological functions with a particular focus on immune activation and inflammation.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Acta Physiologica 11/2014; 213(3). DOI:10.1111/apha.12430 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Herbal medicines have unique odors, and the act of smelling may have modulatory effects on the immune system. We investigated the effect of olfactory exposure to Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23), a Japanese herbal medicine, on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation.Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 05/2014; 9(1):82. DOI:10.1186/1749-8090-9-82 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The co-inhibitory receptor B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) has been implicated in the regulation of autoimmunity and may potentially play an important role in allograft tolerance. This study investigated the effect of an agonistic anti-BTLA mAb (3C10) in the fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched murine cardiac transplantation. CBA mice underwent transplantation of C57BL/6 hearts and received one dose of 3C10 on the day of transplantation (day 0) or four doses of 3C10 on day 0, 3, 6, and 9. Adoptive transfer studies were performed to determine whether regulatory cells were generated. Moreover, to confirm the requirement for regulatory T cell and Th-2 cytokines, anti-interleukin (IL)-2 receptor alpha antibody (PC-61) or anti-IL-10 antibody (JES-2A5) was administered to a 3C10-treated CBA recipient. CBA mice treated with one and four doses of 3C10 prolonged allograft survival (median survival times [MSTs], 43 and >100 days, respectively). Secondary CBA recipients given whole splenocytes or CD4 cells from primary 3C10-treated CBA recipients had significantly prolonged survival of C57BL/6 hearts (MSTs, >100 in both). Also, flow cytometry studies showed an increased CD4CD25Foxp3 cell population in 3C10-treated mice. Additionally, IL-2 and interferon-γ production were suppressed in 3C10-treated mice, and IL-4 and IL-10 from 3C10-treated CBA mice increased. Moreover, 3C10 directly suppressed alloproliferation in a mixed leukocyte culture. However, administration of PC-61 or JES-2A5 clearly attenuated prolonged survival of 3C10-treated mice (MSTs, 15.5 and 13.5 days, respectively). 3C10 could control acute rejection by its suppressive effect on alloreactive T cells and induction of IL-10-dependent regulatory CD4 T cells.Transplantation 01/2014; 97(3). DOI:10.1097/01.TP.0000438204.96723.8b · 3.78 Impact Factor