Molecular determinants of FGF-21 activity-synergy and cross-talk with PPARgamma signaling.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.22). 02/2007; 210(1):1-6. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.20847
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of insulin-independent glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and has glucose and triglyceride lowering effects in rodent models of diabetes. The precise mechanisms whereby FGF-21 regulates metabolism remain to be determined. Here we describe the early signaling events triggered by FGF-21 treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and reveal a functional interplay between FGF-21 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) pathways that leads to a marked stimulation of glucose transport. While the early actions of FGF-21 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes involve rapid accumulation of intracellular calcium and phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3, p70(S6K), SHP-2, MEK1/2, and Stat3, continuous treatment for 72 h induces an increase in PPARgamma protein expression. Moreover, chronic activation of the PPARgamma pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the PPARgamma agonist and anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone (BRL 49653), enhances FGF-21 action to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of FGF receptor-2. Strikingly, treatment of cells with FGF-21 and rosiglitazone in combination leads to a pronounced increase in expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter and a marked synergy in stimulation of glucose transport. Together these results reveal a novel synergy between two regulators of glucose homeostasis, FGF-21 and PPARgamma, and further define FGF-21 mechanism of action.

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    ABSTRACT: The acute phase response (APR) produces marked alterations in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism including decreasing plasma ketone levels. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered hormone that regulates lipid and glucose metabolism and stimulates ketogenesis. Here we demonstrate that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), zymosan, and turpentine, which induce the APR, increase serum FGF21 levels 2-fold. Although LPS, zymosan, and turpentine decrease the hepatic expression of FGF21, they increase FGF21 expression in adipose tissue and muscle, suggesting that extrahepatic tissues account for the increase in serum FGF21. After LPS administration, the characteristic decrease in plasma ketone levels is accentuated in FGF21-/- mice, but this is not due to differences in expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1α or hydroxymethyglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 in liver, because LPS induces similar decreases in the expression of these genes in FGF21-/- and control mice. However, in FGF21-/- mice, the ability of LPS to increase plasma free fatty acid levels is blunted. This failure to increase plasma free fatty acid could contribute to the accentuated decrease in plasma ketone levels because the transport of fatty acids from adipose tissue to liver provides the substrate for ketogenesis. Treatment with exogenous FGF21 reduced the number of animals that die and the rapidity of death after LPS administration in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and to a lesser extent in control mice. FGF21 also protected from the toxic effects of cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Thus, FGF21 is a positive APR protein that protects animals from the toxic effects of LPS and sepsis.
    Endocrinology 04/2012; 153(6):2689-700. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream signaling events and target engagement biomarkers. Specifically, RNA profiling of adipose tissues and phosphoproteomic profiling of adipocytes, following FGF21 treatment revealed several specific changes in gene expression and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation, in several relevant proteins. Affymetrix microarray analysis of white adipose tissues isolated from both C57BL/6 (fed either regular chow or HFD) and db/db mice identified over 150 robust potential RNA transcripts and over 50 potential secreted proteins that were changed greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 acutely. Phosphoprofiling analysis identified over 130 phosphoproteins that were modulated greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the combined gene and phosphoprotein profiling data identified a number of known metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, insulin receptor signaling, Erk/Mapk signaling cascades, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, a number of novel events with hitherto unknown links to FGF21 signaling were observed at both the transcription and protein phosphorylation levels following treatment. We conclude that such a combined "omics" approach can be used not only to identify robust biomarkers for novel therapeutics but can also enhance our understanding of downstream signaling pathways; in the example presented here, novel FGF21-mediated signaling events in adipose tissue have been revealed that warrant further investigation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e73011. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obesity and reduce FGF21 resistance. Despite many studies on the metabolic effects of FGF21, the transcriptional regulation of FGF21 gene expression remains controversial and is not fully understood. As the FGF21 transcription factor pathway is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, further investigation of FGF21 transcriptional regulation is required.
    Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea). 06/2014; 29(2):105-11.

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