Article

Molecular determinants of FGF-21 activity-synergy and cross-talk with PPARgamma signaling.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana 46285, USA.
Journal of Cellular Physiology (Impact Factor: 4.22). 02/2007; 210(1):1-6. DOI: 10.1002/jcp.20847
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-21 is a novel regulator of insulin-independent glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and has glucose and triglyceride lowering effects in rodent models of diabetes. The precise mechanisms whereby FGF-21 regulates metabolism remain to be determined. Here we describe the early signaling events triggered by FGF-21 treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and reveal a functional interplay between FGF-21 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) pathways that leads to a marked stimulation of glucose transport. While the early actions of FGF-21 on 3T3-L1 adipocytes involve rapid accumulation of intracellular calcium and phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3, p70(S6K), SHP-2, MEK1/2, and Stat3, continuous treatment for 72 h induces an increase in PPARgamma protein expression. Moreover, chronic activation of the PPARgamma pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes with the PPARgamma agonist and anti-diabetic agent, rosiglitazone (BRL 49653), enhances FGF-21 action to induce tyrosine phosphorylation of FGF receptor-2. Strikingly, treatment of cells with FGF-21 and rosiglitazone in combination leads to a pronounced increase in expression of the GLUT1 glucose transporter and a marked synergy in stimulation of glucose transport. Together these results reveal a novel synergy between two regulators of glucose homeostasis, FGF-21 and PPARgamma, and further define FGF-21 mechanism of action.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
129 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rosiglitazone (rosi) is a powerful insulin sensitizer, but serious toxicities have curtailed its widespread clinical use. Rosi functions as a high-affinity ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the adipocyte-predominant nuclear receptor (NR). The classic model, involving binding of ligand to the NR on DNA, explains positive regulation of gene expression, but ligand-dependent repression is not well understood. We addressed this issue by studying the direct effects of rosi on gene transcription using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq). Rosi-induced changes in gene body transcription were pronounced after 10 min and correlated with steady-state mRNA levels as well as with transcription at nearby enhancers (enhancer RNAs [eRNAs]). Up-regulated eRNAs occurred almost exclusively at PPARγ-binding sites, to which rosi treatment recruited coactivators, including MED1, p300, and CBP. In contrast, transcriptional repression by rosi involved a loss of coactivators from eRNA sites devoid of PPARγ and enriched for other transcription factors, including AP-1 factors and C/EBPs. Thus, rosi activates and represses transcription by fundamentally different mechanisms that could inform the future development of anti-diabetic drugs.
    Genes & development 05/2014; 28(9):1018-1028. · 12.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an attractive target for treating metabolic disease due to its wide-ranging beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism. Circulating FGF21 levels are increased in insulin-resistant states; however, endogenous FGF21 fails to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity, suggesting that metabolic syndrome is an FGF21-resistant state. Therefore, transcription factors for FGF21 are potential drug targets that could increase FGF21 expression in obesity and reduce FGF21 resistance. Despite many studies on the metabolic effects of FGF21, the transcriptional regulation of FGF21 gene expression remains controversial and is not fully understood. As the FGF21 transcription factor pathway is one of the most promising targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome, further investigation of FGF21 transcriptional regulation is required.
    Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea). 06/2014; 29(2):105-11.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important endogenous regulator involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. FGF21 expression is strongly induced in animal and human subjects with metabolic diseases, but little is known about the molecular mechanism. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an essential role in metabolic homeostasis and is observed in numerous pathological processes, including type 2 diabetes, overweight, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we investigate the correlation between the expression of FGF21 and ER stress. We demonstrated that TG-induced ER stress directly regulated the expression and secretion of FGF21 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. FGF21 is the target gene for activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CCAAT enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). Suppression of CHOP impaired the transcriptional activation of FGF21 by TG-induced ER stress in CHOP-/- mouse primary hepatocytes (MPH), and overexpression of ATF4 and CHOP resulted in FGF21 promoter activation to initiate the transcriptional programme. In mRNA stability assay, we indicated that ER stress increased the half-life of mRNA of FGF21 significantly. In conclusion, FGF21 expression is regulated by ER stress via ATF- and CHOP-dependent transcriptional mechanism and posttranscriptional mechanism, respectively.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:807874. · 2.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
196 Downloads
Available from
May 16, 2014