Long-term outcomes of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT In patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been shown to improve motor function and decrease medication requirements in the short term. However, the long-term benefits of DBS are not yet established.
It was the aim of this study to evaluate long-term outcomes of patients with PD treated with bilateral DBS of the STN.
Thirty-three subjects who had bilateral STN DBS were followed prospectively after surgery. We evaluated subjects, using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), preoperatively, 12 months after surgery and at a long-term follow-up visit. Ratings were performed on and off dopaminergic medications. We compared postoperative UPDRS scores, dyskinesia ratings and medication dosages with preoperative values.
Twenty-seven subjects had evaluations beyond 18 months (median 33.7 months). Total UPDRS scores in the 'medication-off' state were improved by 37% (p < 0.001) at 12 months and 17.7% (p = 0.0051) at the long-term evaluation. Medication-off state UPDRS part III scores were significantly improved at both 1 year and at the last evaluation (37.6 and 29.3%; p < 0.001). Dopaminergic medication requirements were decreased by 35.3% (p < 0.001) during the first postoperative year and remained below preoperative levels at the long-term evaluation. Average duration of 'off' time remained decreased by about 40% at both 1 year and at the time of last evaluation. Subjects had a sustained reduction in dyskinesia severity (88.6% at 1 year and 68.8% at last evaluation).
In this cohort of subjects with advanced PD, bilateral STN stimulation improved 'off' medication motor function, reduced time spent in the medication-off state and reduced medication requirements for up to 4 years after surgery. We conclude that STN DBS is an effective long-term therapy for selected patients with advanced PD.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for motor signs of Parkinson's disease (PD) depends in part on post-operative programming of stimulus parameters. There is a need for a systematic approach to tuning parameters based on patient physiology. We used a physiologically realistic computational model of the basal ganglia network to investigate the emergence of a 34 Hz oscillation in the PD state and its optimal suppression with DBS. Discrete time transfer functions were fit to post-stimulus time histograms (PSTHs) collected in open-loop, by simulating the pharmacological block of synaptic connections, to describe the behavior of the basal ganglia nuclei. These functions were then connected to create a mean-field model of the closed-loop system, which was analyzed to determine the origin of the emergent 34 Hz pathological oscillation. This analysis determined that the oscillation could emerge from the coupling between the globus pallidus external (GPe) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). When coupled, the two resonate with each other in the PD state but not in the healthy state. By characterizing how this oscillation is affected by subthreshold DBS pulses, we hypothesize that it is possible to predict stimulus frequencies capable of suppressing this oscillation. To characterize the response to the stimulus, we developed a new method for estimating phase response curves (PRCs) from population data. Using the population PRC we were able to predict frequencies that enhance and suppress the 34 Hz pathological oscillation. This provides a systematic approach to tuning DBS frequencies and could enable closed-loop tuning of stimulation parameters.Journal of Computational Neuroscience 08/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1007/s10827-014-0523-7 · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: After several years duration of Parkinson's disease, with or without deep brain stimulation, axial signs (such as postural instability, freezing of gait) may worsen. High-voltage, low-frequency stimulation has been shown to improve severe gait disorders in some patients. Objective: To identify predictive factors for the efficacy of low-frequency stimulation. Methods: We assessed the respective effects of low- and high-frequency stimulation using an acute stand-walk- sit test, and on motor performance in 22 patients with longstanding, bilateral sub-thalamic nucleus stimulation. We calculated the difference in the number of steps (delta steps) between high and low -frequency stimulation during the stand-walk-sit test. Our aim was to establish a profile for low-frequency responders, which was defined by a positive value for delta steps. Results: Low frequency responders presented higher age, a severe axial phenotype five years after surgery and a lower L-dopa responsiveness of (i) the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III score and its akinesia subscore before surgery and (ii) the axial subscore one year after surgery. Conclusion: Here we defined a specific and severe axial profile of minority of patients who could benefit from low frequency stimulation parameters. Our findings challenge the conventional treatment approach (i.e. high-frequency stimulation) in patients who develop gait disorders after several years of stimulation.04/2014; 4(3). DOI:10.3233/JPD-130337
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this study, 23 asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients were treated with unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus and followed up for 5 years. At 5 years after stimulation treatment, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores in the off-drug condition were significantly increased compared those at baseline. However, total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale II, III and axial symptom scores were significantly lower with stimulation-on compared with the synchronous stimulation-off state in off-drug condition, and the motor symptoms of contralateral side limbs were effectively controlled. Only low Hoehn-Yahr stage was correlated with good long-term postoperative improvement in motor symptoms. The mean levodopa-equivalent daily dose after stimulation treatment was significantly lower than that before treatment, but dyskinesias became worse. Our experimental findings indicate that unilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for improving motor symptoms in well selected asymmetrical Parkinson's disease patients presenting no severe axial symptoms and dyskinesias.Neural Regeneration Research 06/2012; 7(18):1428-35. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.18.010 · 0.23 Impact Factor