Article

Secrets of the lac operon. Glucose hysteresis as a mechanism in dietary restriction, aging and disease.

Departments of Neuroscience and Geriatrics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1 Gustave L. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA.
Interdisciplinary topics in gerontology 02/2007; 35:39-68. DOI: 10.1159/000096555
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Elevated blood glucose associated with diabetes produces progressive and apparently irreversible damage to many cell types. Conversely, reduction of glucose extends life span in yeast, and dietary restriction reduces blood glucose. Therefore it has been hypothesized that cumulative toxic effects of glucose drive at least some aspects of the aging process and, conversely, that protective effects of dietary restriction are mediated by a reduction in exposure to glucose. The mechanisms mediating cumulative toxic effects of glucose are suggested by two general principles of metabolic processes, illustrated by the lac operon but also observed with glucose-induced gene expression. First, metabolites induce the machinery of their own metabolism. Second, induction of gene expression by metabolites can entail a form of molecular memory called hysteresis. When applied to glucose-regulated gene expression, these two principles suggest a mechanism whereby repetitive exposure to postprandial excursions of glucose leads to an age-related increase in glycolytic capacity (and reduction in beta-oxidation of free fatty acids), which in turn leads to an increased generation of oxidative damage and a decreased capacity to respond to oxidative damage, independent of metabolic rate. According to this mechanism, dietary restriction increases life span and reduces pathology by reducing exposure to glucose and therefore delaying the development of glucose-induced glycolytic capacity.

Full-text

Available from: Fumiko Isoda, Jul 15, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
169 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respiratory chain function becomes less efficient with age resulting in increased levels of damaging reactive oxygen species. We compared rotenone-exposed fibroblast strains from young and old subjects and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and the partners of the offspring. Rotenone increased reactive oxygen species levels, inhibited growth rate, and increased telomere shortening (all p < .05). Non-stressed strains from young subjects showed lower reactive oxygen species levels (p = .031) and higher growth rates (p = .002) than strains from old subjects. Stressed strains from young subjects showed smaller increases in reactive oxygen species levels (p = .014) and larger decreases in growth rate (p < .001) than strains from old subjects. Telomere-shortening rates were not different between groups. Stress-induced decreases in growth rate were larger in strains from offspring than from partners (p = .05). Strains from young and old subjects are differentially affected by chronic inhibition of the respiratory chain. Changed growth rates in strains from offspring resemble those from strains from young subjects.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 11/2011; 67(5):456-64. DOI:10.1093/gerona/glr196 · 4.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unlike various model organisms, cellular responses to stress have not been related to human longevity. We investigated cellular responses to stress in skin fibroblasts that were isolated from young and very old subjects, and from offspring of nonagenarian siblings and their partners, representatives of the general population. Fibroblasts were exposed to rotenone and hyperglycemia and assessed for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-gal) activity by flow cytometry. Apoptosis/cell death was measured with the Annexin-V/PI assay and cell-cycle analysis (Sub-G1 content) and growth potential was determined by the colony formation assay. Compared with fibroblasts from young subjects, baseline SA-beta-gal activity was higher in fibroblasts from old subjects (P = 0.004) as were stress-induced increases (rotenone: P < 0.001, hyperglycemia: P = 0.027). For measures of apoptosis/cell death, fibroblasts from old subjects showed higher baseline levels (Annexin V+/PI+ cells: P = 0.040, Sub-G1: P = 0.014) and lower stress-induced increases (Sub-G1: P = 0.018) than fibroblasts from young subjects. Numbers and total size of colonies under nonstressed conditions were higher for fibroblasts from young subjects (P = 0.017 and 0.006, respectively). Baseline levels of SA-beta-gal activity and apoptosis/cell death were not different between fibroblasts from offspring and partner. Stress-induced increases were lower for SA-beta-gal activity (rotenone: P = 0.064, hyperglycemia: P < 0.001) and higher for apoptosis/cell death (Annexin V+/PI- cells: P = 0.041, Annexin V+/PI+ cells: P = 0.008). Numbers and total size of colonies under nonstressed conditions were higher for fibroblasts from offspring (P = 0.001 and 0.024, respectively) whereas rotenone-induced decreases were lower (P = 0.008 and 0.004, respectively). These data provide strong support for the hypothesis that in vitro cellular responses to stress reflect the propensity for human longevity.
    Aging cell 09/2009; 8(5):595-603. DOI:10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00506.x · 5.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence, an important factor in ageing phenotypes, can be induced by replicative exhaustion or by stress. We investigated the relation between maximum replicative capacity, telomere length, stress-induced cellular senescence, and apoptosis/cell death in human primary fibroblast strains obtained from nonagenarians of the Leiden 85-plus Study. Fibroblast strains were cultured until replicative senescence and stressed with rotenone at low passage. Telomere length, senescence-associated-β-galactosidase activity, sub-G1 content, and Annexin-V/PI positivity were measured in nonstressed and stressed conditions. Fibroblast strains with a higher replicative capacity had longer telomeres (p = .054). In nonstressed conditions, replicative capacity was not associated with β-gal activity (p = .07) and negatively with sub-G1 (p = .008). In rotenone-stressed conditions, replicative capacity was negatively associated with β-gal activity (p = .034) and positively with sub-G1 (p = .07). Summarizing, fibroblast strains with a higher maximum replicative capacity have longer telomeres, are less prone to go into stress-induced cellular senescence, and more prone to die after stress.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 10/2010; 66(1):45-50. DOI:10.1093/gerona/glq159 · 4.98 Impact Factor