Enhanced Histopathology of the Bone Marrow

Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/NIH, 111 Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
Toxicologic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/2006; 34(5):666-86. DOI: 10.1080/01926230600939971
Source: PubMed


Changes in bone marrow cellularity can be an indicator of systemic toxicity and, therefore, bone marrow should be included in the battery of tissues examined for enhanced histopathology. However, the majority of changes in the bone marrow that are observed in toxicology studies are a response to hematological changes or lesions elsewhere in the body. For this reason, a consideration of all tissue changes in the body is required in order to differentiate toxic effects versus physiological responses in the bone marrow. While enhanced histopathology involves evaluation of the separate compartments in each lymphoid organ using descriptive rather than interpretive terminology, bone marrow is unique in that it lacks specific compartments. Furthermore, identification of erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic, and stromal cells, plus adipose tissue and hemosiderin-laden macrophages, can be accomplished from conventional H&E-stained sections, but conclusive identification of lymphoid lineage cells is not likely. This limits the extent of initial enhanced histopathology on bone marrow and argues for the use of cytological preparations for more comprehensive assessment of potential immunomodulatory effects.

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Article: Enhanced Histopathology of the Bone Marrow

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    • "The genesis of hematological alterations in both red and white blood cell series is often related to bone marrow disorders such as dysplasia and aplasia [13]–[14]. A detailed examination of bone marrow provides the hematopoietic status of an individual [15], thus indicating that bone marrow disorders are related to peripheral blood alterations. Moreover, when used in combination with a complete blood count, examination of bone marrow smears provides information about the hematopoietic system that might otherwise be missed by analysis of the peripheral blood alone [16]. "
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    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e82947. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0082947 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The compartments to be evaluated include the cortex and medulla of the thymus (Elmore 2006a); the periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS), follicles, marginal zone, and red pulp of the spleen (Elmore 2006b); and the cortex (follicles, subcapsular sinus), paracortex , and medulla (cords, sinuses) of the lymph nodes (Elmore 2006c). Although anatomic pathologists do not recognize different compartments within the bone marrow, the individual cell populations should be evaluated and the myeloid:erythroid ratio determined (Elmore 2006d). Any potential treatmentrelated effects observed in the bone marrow should be followed up with clinical pathology. "
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