Normal Structure, Function, and Histology of the Spleen

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Toxicologic Pathology (Impact Factor: 1.92). 02/2006; 34(5):455-65. DOI: 10.1080/01926230600867743
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The spleen is the largest secondary immune organ in the body and is responsible for initiating immune reactions to blood-borne antigens and for filtering the blood of foreign material and old or damaged red blood cells. These functions are carried out by the 2 main compartments of the spleen, the white pulp (including the marginal zone) and the red pulp, which are vastly different in their architecture, vascular organization, and cellular composition. The morphology of these compartments is described and, to a lesser extent, their functions are discussed. The variation between species and effects of aging and genetics on splenic morphology are also discussed.

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    • "outsidethespleenthroughthesplenicveins.Specifically,the lymphocytesafterenteringthemarginalsinuscandirectionally migratetothesurroundingsofthecentralarteryinthearterial terminalbranches(MebiusandKraal,2005;Cesta,2006)toform whitepulp.Onthecontrary,othercellcomponentswillflow alongwiththebloodintotheredpulp.Theredpulpcontains abundantphagocytes,whichwillclearawaytheoldRBCsandthe pathogenicmicroorganism(denHaanetal.,2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The spleen combines the innate and adaptive immune systems in a uniquely organized way. The excision of spleen will induce many complications, especially the increased susceptibility to infections. Recent research shows that besides playing roles during the immune responses, the spleen is also an important organ during immunoregulation, which is different from other secondary lymphoid organs. This unique function is mainly realized by modulating cell migration and proliferation in the spleen. This review provides a better understanding of the functions of this complex organ gained from recent studies.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2015; 6:645. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00645 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    • "The other is a marginal zone macrophage that is positive for SIGN-R1 and/or MARCO; it plays a major role in filtering and cleaning S. pneumonia. SIGN-R1 binds capsular polysaccharides, such as on S. pneumonia [17] [22] [23], while MARCO binds to S. aureus and Escherichia coli [24]. In addition, marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B-cells have a direct intercellular interactions via MARCO expressed on marginal zone macrophages with an undetermined ligand on marginal zone B-cells [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) associated with Streptococcus pneumonia infection in a previously healthy man. Although he once visited a hospital about 6 hours before death, the both physical and serological examination did not show any sign of overwhelming infection. Autopsy showed massive adrenal hemorrhage without inflammation, and showed proliferation of gram positive cocci and microthrombosis in the vessels of many organs. The pathological change of respiratory tract was extremely minimal. Size and weight of the spleen possible decreased than normal. However, histological examination showed that obscuration of germinal center and decreasing the immunological cells of mantle and marginal zone. Immunohisitochemically, marked decreasing the marginal zone macrophages, which are positive for specific inter-cellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin receptor-1 (SIGN-R1) and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), were decreased comparing with age-matched control case. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using each DNA, extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimen (FFPE) samples of lung, adrenal gland, heart, spleen, and kidney showed positive the ply gene and the lytA gene specific for Streptococcus pneumonia. Present case showed possible acquired atrophy of spleen, especially decreasing marginal zone macrophage may correlate with rapid progression of sepsis of Streptococcus pneumonia with massive adrenal hemorrhage. In addition, present case showed the usefulness of PCR using FFPE for the postmortem diagnosis of WFS.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 06/2015; 8(6):7518-7525. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    • "fenestrae [5], [6]. On the other end, SPIONs with hydrodynamic diameter bigger than the inter-endothelial slits in the spleen (∼200–500 nm) will be retained in the red pulp and eventually cleared by resident macrophage cells [7], [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Surface coatings are important components of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) tracers - they preserve their key properties responsible for optimum tracer performance in physiological environments. In vivo, surface coatings form a physical barrier between the hydrophobic SPION cores and the physiological environment, and their design dictates the blood half-life and biodistribution of MPI tracers. Here we show the effect of tuning poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based surface coatings on both in vitro and in vivo (mouse model) MPI performance of SPIONs. Our results showed that varying PEG molecular weight had a profound impact on colloidal stability, characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), and the m'(H) response of SPIONs, measured in a 25 kHz/20 mTμ0 (-1) max Magnetic Particle Spectrometer (MPS). Increasing PEG molecular weight from 5 kDa to 20 kDa preserved colloidal stability and m'(H) response of ~25 nm SPIONs - the optimum core diameter for MPI - in serum-rich cell culture medium for up to 24 hours. Furthermore, we compared the in vivo circulation time of SPIONs as a function of hydrodynamic diameter and showed that clustered SPIONs can adversely affect blood half-life; critically, SPIONs with clusters had 5 times shorter blood half-life than individually coated SPIONs. We anticipate that the development of MPI SPION tracers with long blood half-lives have potential not only in vascular imaging applications, but also enable opportunities in molecular targeting and imaging - a critical step towards early cancer detection using the new MPI modality.
    IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 02/2015; 51(2). DOI:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2321096 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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