Normal Structure, Function, and Histology of the Spleen

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Toxicologic Pathology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 02/2006; 34(5):455-65. DOI: 10.1080/01926230600867743
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The spleen is the largest secondary immune organ in the body and is responsible for initiating immune reactions to blood-borne antigens and for filtering the blood of foreign material and old or damaged red blood cells. These functions are carried out by the 2 main compartments of the spleen, the white pulp (including the marginal zone) and the red pulp, which are vastly different in their architecture, vascular organization, and cellular composition. The morphology of these compartments is described and, to a lesser extent, their functions are discussed. The variation between species and effects of aging and genetics on splenic morphology are also discussed.

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    • "However, in small cetaceans the spleen is relatively small and probably does not serve a blood storage role (Cowan and Smith, 1999). Similarly to the majority of rodents, but unlike mice or seals which are characterized by storage type spleens (Eurell, 2003; Cesta, 2006), beavers have defensive type spleens (Dolka et al., 2014). An absence of blood-storing properties in beaver spleens could reflect the beavers' adaptation to an aquatic mode of life and their reluctance to remain on land for longer periods of time (Dolka et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: To meet the challenges presented by dive-derived hypoxia/reoxygenation transition, the aquatic mammals possess multi-level adaptations. However, the adjustments of the semiaquatic animals as modern analogs of evolutionary intermediates between ancestral terrestrial mammals and their fully aquatic descendants are still not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze the total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (in the lactate to pyruvate direction), the LDH patterns and the antioxidant defense in the tissues (heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, spleen) of semiaquatic rodents such as Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber), muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) and nutria (Myocastor coypus). Samples from Wistar rat were used for comparison. Semiaquatic rodents had higher catalase activity compared to rat's one. The superoxide dismutase activity was higher and the catalase activity was lower in almost all tissues of muskrat than of both beaver and nutria. Comparing beaver and nutria, no significant differences in the antioxidant enzymes activities were found for heart, kidney and liver. In beaver, most of the examined tissues (heart, kidney, lung and spleen) use lactate as preference to glucose as a substrate but in muskrat the heart, liver and skeletal muscle showed the increased LDH activity. Nutria had the unusual LDH properties that are needed to be further investigated. Our results suggest that beaver, nutria and muskrat have distinct mechanisms of adaptation to diving hypoxia/reoxygenation and support the hypothesis that semiaquatic mammals are the intermediate animals that help to define which potential selection factors and mechanical constraints may have directed the evolution of the aquatic forms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & molecular biology 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cbpb.2015.08.012 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "outsidethespleenthroughthesplenicveins.Specifically,the lymphocytesafterenteringthemarginalsinuscandirectionally migratetothesurroundingsofthecentralarteryinthearterial terminalbranches(MebiusandKraal,2005;Cesta,2006)toform whitepulp.Onthecontrary,othercellcomponentswillflow alongwiththebloodintotheredpulp.Theredpulpcontains abundantphagocytes,whichwillclearawaytheoldRBCsandthe pathogenicmicroorganism(denHaanetal.,2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The spleen combines the innate and adaptive immune systems in a uniquely organized way. The excision of spleen will induce many complications, especially the increased susceptibility to infections. Recent research shows that besides playing roles during the immune responses, the spleen is also an important organ during immunoregulation, which is different from other secondary lymphoid organs. This unique function is mainly realized by modulating cell migration and proliferation in the spleen. This review provides a better understanding of the functions of this complex organ gained from recent studies.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 06/2015; 6:645. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00645 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    • "The other is a marginal zone macrophage that is positive for SIGN-R1 and/or MARCO; it plays a major role in filtering and cleaning S. pneumonia. SIGN-R1 binds capsular polysaccharides, such as on S. pneumonia [17] [22] [23], while MARCO binds to S. aureus and Escherichia coli [24]. In addition, marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B-cells have a direct intercellular interactions via MARCO expressed on marginal zone macrophages with an undetermined ligand on marginal zone B-cells [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report an autopsy case of rapid progressive Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) associated with Streptococcus pneumonia infection in a previously healthy man. Although he once visited a hospital about 6 hours before death, the both physical and serological examination did not show any sign of overwhelming infection. Autopsy showed massive adrenal hemorrhage without inflammation, and showed proliferation of gram positive cocci and microthrombosis in the vessels of many organs. The pathological change of respiratory tract was extremely minimal. Size and weight of the spleen possible decreased than normal. However, histological examination showed that obscuration of germinal center and decreasing the immunological cells of mantle and marginal zone. Immunohisitochemically, marked decreasing the marginal zone macrophages, which are positive for specific inter-cellular adhesion molecule grabbing nonintegrin receptor-1 (SIGN-R1) and macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), were decreased comparing with age-matched control case. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using each DNA, extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimen (FFPE) samples of lung, adrenal gland, heart, spleen, and kidney showed positive the ply gene and the lytA gene specific for Streptococcus pneumonia. Present case showed possible acquired atrophy of spleen, especially decreasing marginal zone macrophage may correlate with rapid progression of sepsis of Streptococcus pneumonia with massive adrenal hemorrhage. In addition, present case showed the usefulness of PCR using FFPE for the postmortem diagnosis of WFS.
    International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 06/2015; 8(6):7518-7525. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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