Exosomes: from biogenesis and secretion to biological function.

German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Tumor Immunology Program, D010/TP3, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Immunology Letters (Impact Factor: 2.37). 12/2006; 107(2):102-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.imlet.2006.09.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Exosomes are small microvesicles that are released from late endosomal compartments of cultured cells. Recent work has shown that exosome-like vesicles are also found in many body fluids such as blood, urine, ascites and amnionic fluid. Although the biological function of exosomes is far from being fully understood, exosomes may have general importance in cell biology and immunology. The present review aims to address some of the facets of exosome research with particular emphasis on the immunologist's perspective: (i) exosomes as a novel platform for the ectodomain shedding of membrane proteins by ADAMs and (ii) recent findings on the role of exosomes in tumor biology and immune regulation.

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    Frontiers in microbiology. 01/2014; 5:719.
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    ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells lining the urinary tract secrete urinary exosomes (40-100nm) that can be targeted to specific cells modulating their functionality. One potential targeting mechanism is adhesion between vesicle surface glycoproteins and target cells. This makes the glycopeptide analysis of exosomes important. Exosomes reflect the physiological state of the parent cells; therefore they are a good source of biomarkers for urological and other diseases. Moreover, the urine collection is easy and non-invasive and urinary exosomes give information about renal and systemic organ systems. Accordingly, multiple studies on proteomic characterization of urinary exosomes in health and disease have been published. However, no systematic analysis of their glycoproteomic profile has been carried out to date while a conserved glycan signature has been found for exosomes from urine and other sources including T cell lines and human milk. Here, we have enriched and identified the N-glycopeptides from these vesicles. These enriched N-glycopeptides were solved for their peptide sequence, glycan composition, structure and glycosylation site using collision-induced dissociation MS/MS (CID-tandem MS) data interpreted by a publicly available software GlycopeptideId. Released glycans from the same sample was also analyzed with MALDI-MS. We have identified the N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes. In total 126 N-glycopeptides from 51 N-glycosylation sites belonging to 37 glycoproteins were found in our results. The peptide sequences of these N-glycopeptides were identified unambiguously and their glycan composition (for 125 N-glycopeptides) and structures (for 87 N-glycopeptides) were proposed. A corresponding glycomic analysis with released N-glycans was also performed. We identified 66 unique non-modified N-glycan compositions and in addition 13 sulfated/phosphorylated glycans were also found. This is the first systematic analysis of N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes.
    Molecular &amp Cellular Proteomics 12/2014; · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles secreted into the extracellular milieu by diverse cell types. Exosomes facilitate intercellular communication, modulate cellular pheno/genotype, and regulate microbial pathogenesis. Although human semen contains exosomes, their role in regulating infection of viruses that are sexually transmitted remains unknown. In this study, we used semen exosomes purified from healthy human donors to evaluate the role of exosomes on the infectivity of different strains of HIV-1 in a variety of cell lines.ResultsWe show that human semen contains a heterologous population of exosomes, enriched in mRNA encoding tetraspanin exosomal markers and various antiviral factors. Semen exosomes are internalized by recipient cells irrespective of cell type and upon internalization, inhibit replication of a broad array of HIV-1 strains. Remarkably, the anti-HIV-1 activity of semen exosomes is specific to retroviruses because semen exosomes blocked replication of the murine AIDS (mAIDS) virus complex (LP-BM5). However, exosomes from blood had no effect on HIV-1 or LP-BM5 replication. Additionally, semen and blood exosomes had no effect on replication of herpes simplex virus; types 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2). Mechanistic studies indicate that semen exosomes exert a post-entry block on HIV-1 replication by orchestrating deleterious effects on particle-associated reverse transcriptase activity and infectivity.Conclusions These illuminating findings i) improved our knowledge of the cargo of semen exosomes, ii) revealed that semen exosomes possess anti-retroviral activity, and iii) suggest that semen exosome-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 replication may provide novel opportunities for the development of new therapeutics for HIV-1.
    Retrovirology 11/2014; 11(1):102. · 4.77 Impact Factor

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