Interrelationship between noninvasive predictors of atherosclerosis: transthoracic coronary flow reserve, flow-mediated dilation, carotid intima-media thickness, aortic stiffness, aortic distensibility, elastic modulus, and brachial artery diameter.
ABSTRACT In this study, we searched for a correlation between transthoracic coronary flow reserve (CFR) and well-established surrogates of coronary atherosclerosis.
The study was conducted on 136 healthy subjects (mean age: 39.9 +/- 7.3 years) who were free of coronary risk factors. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure the aortic stiffness index (AoSI), aortic distensibility (AoD), and aortic elastic modulus (AoEM). High-resolution ultrasound was used to measure brachial artery endothelium-dependent and independent vasomotion and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). In addition, transthoracic second harmonic Doppler echocardiography was used to measure CFR.
All of the parameters significantly correlated with each other except brachial endothelium-independent dilation. CFR correlated significantly with brachial endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) (r = 0.302, P < 0.01), carotid IMT (r =-0.388, P < 0.01), brachial artery diameter (r = 0.340, P < 0.01), AoD (r = 0.275, P < 0.01), AoS (r =-0.299, P < 0.01), and AoEM (r =-0.30,7 P < 0.01). Carotid IMT correlated significantly with brachial EDD and modestly with brachial artery diameter, AoD, AoS, and AoEM.In multivariate analysis, carotid IMT (beta=-0.323, P < 0.0001) and brachial artery diameter (beta = -0.259, P = 0.001) were significant independent predictors of CFR. The left ventricular mass index (beta= 0.371, P < 0.0001), brachial EDD (beta = -0.232, P = 0.002), and CFR (beta = -0.228, P = 0.003) were significant predictors for IMT.
Transthoracic CFR correlated significantly with well-established noninvasive predictors of atherosclerosis, and we suggest that it can be used as a surrogate for coronary atherosclerosis.
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ABSTRACT: ; The aim of the present study was to assess whether optimized antihypertensive treatment is effective in modifying endothelial function and whether an improvement in flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in response to treatment, as an expression of reversible endothelial dysfunction, could predict a more favorable prognosis in a population of postmenopausal women. Hypertensive postmenopausal women have been shown to have abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular function. However, FMD may change over time, according to antihypertensive treatment; the prognostic value of these changes has not been investigated. A total of 400 consecutive postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate hypertension and impaired FMD underwent ultrasonography of the brachial artery at baseline and after six months, while optimal control of blood pressure was achieved using antihypertensive therapy. They were then followed up for a mean period of 67 months (range 57 to 78). Endothelial function was measured as FMD of the brachial artery, using high-resolution ultrasound. After six months of treatment, FMD had not changed (< or = 10% relative to baseline) in 150 (37.5%) of 400 women (group 1), whereas it had significantly improved (>10% relative to baseline) in the remaining 250 women (62.5%) (group 2). During follow-up, we noticed 32 events (3.50 per 100 person-years) in group 1 and 15 events (0.51 per 100 person-years) in group 2 (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrates that a significant improvement in endothelial function may be obtained after six months of antihypertensive therapy and clearly identifies patients who possibly have a more favorable prognosis.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 08/2002; 40(3):505-10. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial function is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart failure. In the 1990s, high-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of the brachial artery to assess endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was developed. The technique provokes the release of nitric oxide, resulting in vasodilation that can be quantitated as an index of vasomotor function. The noninvasive nature of the technique allows repeated measurements over time to study the effectiveness of various interventions that may affect vascular health. However, despite its widespread use, there are technical and interpretive limitations of this technique. State-of-the-art information is presented and insights are provided into the strengths and limitations of high-resolution ultrasonography of the brachial artery to evaluate vasomotor function, with guidelines for its research application in the study of endothelial physiology.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2002; 39(2):257-65. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The feasibility of noninvasive assessment of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in the distal left anterior descending artery (LAD) with echocardiography-enhanced transthoracic pulsed wave Doppler guided by high-resolution transthoracic color Doppler (TTCD) was investigated. The results were compared with the degree of coronary diameter stenosis obtained during cardiac catheterization. Assessment of CFR has proven to be useful in the selection of patients undergoing invasive treatment of coronary artery disease and in estimating their prognosis. However, CFR could only be determined invasively in everyday practice during catheterization procedures. Recent development of high-resolution TTCD allows transthoracic visualization of distal LAD and supra-apical intramyocardial perforator branches and noninvasive measurement of CFR with pulsed wave Doppler technique. CFR was determined by measuring the ratio of pulsed wave Doppler time velocity integral during adenosine-induced hyperemia (140 microgram/kg/min intravenously) to baseline value. If the baseline Doppler signal of LAD flow was insufficient, an echocardiography (echo) enhancer (Levovist) was used. Forty-five patients were examined by TTCD (7-MHz B-mode, 5-MHz color Doppler, and 3.5-MHz pulsed wave Doppler) after coronary angiography had been performed. Group 1 consisted of 15 patients without heart disease, group 2 of 15 patients with 50% to 85% isolated LAD diameter stenosis, and group 3 of 15 patients with >85% LAD diameter stenosis. Peripheral LAD coronary flow at baseline condition was assessed in 40 (88%) patients with TTCD. CFR could be quantified in 36 (80%) of the 45 patients: in 18 patients without echo enhancer, and in 18 patients with echo-enhancing agent. CFR could not be assessed in 9 (20%) patients. CFR in the various groups was as follows: group 1, 3. 13 +/- 0.57; group 2, 2.23 +/- 0.20 (vs group 1: P <.01); and group 3, 1.64 +/- 0.30 (vs group 2: P <.02). CFR in the LAD can be determined in 80% of patients with pulsed wave Doppler guided by high-resolution TTCD combined with intravenously administered echo-enhancing agent.Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography 03/1999; 12(3):186-95. · 4.28 Impact Factor