Chemotherapy practices and perspectives in invasive bladder cancer.
ABSTRACT Bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in adult patients. Two-thirds of patients have superficial tumors and their treatment is conservative. Nevertheless, 30% of superficial tumors become infiltrative and represent a third of tumors at initial diagnosis. Overall mortality from bladder cancer is 30%. Important molecular events may explain the carcinogenesis and evolution of these tumors. Infiltrating bladder cancers are currently treated by radical cystectomy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has demonstrated a positive impact on patients' outcomes before cystectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy after cystectomy is currently being studied in an international randomized trial. Patients with advanced disease are treated by chemotherapy with palliative intentions. Two regimens are standard: the combination of methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin and cisplatin, and the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin. The addition of paclitaxel to the latter regimen is the subject of ongoing study. Only a few patients have long-term nonevolutive disease. Research must be focused on the combination of chemotherapy and targeted drugs directed through gene methylation, cytokine-receptor activation and signaling pathways.
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ABSTRACT: Gemcitabine is a promising new drug in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. The drug has been tested as a single-agent in one phase I study and four phase II studies. Gemcitabine was administered on days 1, 8 and 15 every 28 days with a dose in the phase II studies ranging from 1000 to 1250 mg/m(2). Response rates for single-agent gemcitabine in as well previously untreated as cisplatin-based pretreated patients ranged from 23 to 29% with CR rates between 4 and 13%. Toxicities were mild to modest and generally without grade 4 toxicities. The combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin has been tested in three phase II studies. Gemcitabine was administered in a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 every 28 days whereas the cisplatin dose and schedule varied. In one study, cisplatin was given in a dose of 35 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 together with gemcitabine; in the two other studies in a dose of 70-75 mg/m(2) on day 1 or 2 in each treatment course. The response rates ranged from 42 to 66% with CR rates of 18, 21 and 28%. Median survival was reported in two of the studies, 12.5 and 13.2 months, respectively. Toxicities were generally manageable although the weekly schedule of cisplatin resulted in a high degree of grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. Thus, the schedule has been optimized by use of monthly cisplatin in a dose of 70 to 75 mg/m(2). The two-drug combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin has also been compared with MVAC in a randomized phase III trial. Gemcitabine was administered in a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8 and 15 and cisplatin in a dose of 70 mg/m(2) on day 2 every 28 days. The study was initiated late in 1996 and the planned recruitment of 400 patients was reached at the end of October 1998. The results are now eagerly awaited. Preliminary results for gemcitabine tested in two- and three-drug combinations with new agents such as paclitaxel have indicated response rates of up to 79% and these combinations should be further explored.Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology 07/2000; 34(3):175-83. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine maximum tolerated dose of CI-994, a novel oral histone deacetylase inhibitor, in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors. Patients with advanced solid tumors who had received two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens were eligible for trial. Five cohorts of patients were treated with escalating doses (4-6 mg/m2) and alternative schedules (7 days or 14 days) of CI-994. Dose escalation of paclitaxel was performed to achieve tolerability of CI-994 with a paclitaxel dose of 225 mg/m2 when administered in combination with carboplatin. Pharmacokinetic assessment of CI-994 was performed by using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Histone deacetylation inhibition was determined by Western blot analysis. A total of 30 patients (median age 58 years) were entered into five treatment cohorts. Maximum tolerated dose of CI-994 was determined to be 4 mg/m2 administered for 7 consecutive days following paclitaxel at a dose of 225 mg/m2 and carboplatin at an area under the curve (AUC) of 6 every 21 days. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and grade 3 respiratory insufficiency limited further dose escalation of CI-994. Pharmacokinetics showed that CI-994 absorption and disposition were unaffected by carboplatin and paclitaxel coadministration. Association between histone H3 acetylation levels and disease response was suggested. A subset of patients with lymphocyte H3 acetylation levels at least 1.5-fold times baseline all achieved either a clinical response or stable disease. All evaluable patients with progressive disease (PD) had H3 acetylation levels <1.5-fold times baseline. Twenty-four of the 30 patients received greater than one cycle of treatment. Five of these patients achieved a partial response (3 nonsmall cell lung cancer, 1 colorectal cancer, and 1 unknown primary) and 2 patients achieved a complete response (esophageal and bladder cancer). The combination of CI-994 at a dose of 4 mg/m2 administered orally for 7 consecutive days can be safely coadministered with paclitaxel at a dose of 225 mg/m2 and carboplatin at an AUC of 6 on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Evidence of antitumor activity is suggested and may correlate with histone modulation.Cancer Investigation 01/2004; 22(6):886-96. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This phase I trial sought to evaluate the toxicity of and determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) for the two-drug regimen doxorubicin and gemcitabine (AG) followed by the three-drug regimen of ifosfamide, paclitaxel, and cisplatin (ITP) in patients with unresectable or metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma. Patients received AG every other week for six cycles followed by ITP every 3 weeks for four cycles. Five AG dose levels were investigated, up to doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) and gemcitabine 2, 000 mg/m(2), to determine the MTD of the regimen. The dose and schedule of ITP were constant: ifosfamide 1,500 mg/m(2) (days 1 to 3); paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) (day 1); and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) (day 1). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was given between all cycles of therapy. Fifteen patients enrolled onto this phase I trial. AG was well tolerated at all dose levels, with no grade 3 or 4 myelosuppression. Toxicity experienced with ITP included grade 3 and 4 granulocytopenia in four patients and grade 3 nausea/vomiting in three patients. No grade 3 and 4 neurotoxicity was observed. Eight of 14 assessable patients experienced a major response to AG, including five of six patients treated at the two highest AG dose levels. After completion of AG-ITP, nine of 14 assessable patients had a major response (three complete responses and six partial responses). AG is a well-tolerated and active regimen. Sequential chemotherapy with AG-ITP is also well tolerated, and phase II investigation at the highest dose level is ongoing.Journal of Clinical Oncology 03/2000; 18(4):840-6. · 18.04 Impact Factor