MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs of 19-24 nucleotides in length that downregulate gene expression during various crucial cell processes such as apoptosis, differentiation and development. Recent work supports a role for miRNAs in the initiation and progression of human malignancies. Large high-throughput studies in patients revealed that miRNA profiling have the potential to classify tumors with high accuracy and predict outcome. Functional studies, some of which involve animal models, indicate that miRNAs act as tumor suppressors and oncogenes. Here, we summarize miRNA-profiling studies in human malignancies and examine the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of cancer. We also discuss the implications of these findings for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
"MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, about 19–24 nucleotides in length. By binding to the complementary sites in their target gene transcripts, miRNAs cause translational repression or transcript degradation, thereby playing an important role in the regulation of crucial cell processes such as proliferation, differentiation , and development   . Consequently, miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of various human cancers including prostate cancer . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (19–24 nt), low molecular weight RNAs that play important roles in the regulation of target genes associated with cell proliferation, differentiation, and development, by binding to the 3′-untranslated region of the target mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression of miRNA-126 (miR-126) and miR-149 in prostate cancer, and investigated the molecular mechanisms by which they affect syndecan-1 in prostate cancer. Functional analysis of miR-126 and miR-149 was conducted in the prostate cancer cell lines, PC3, Du145, and LNCaP. The expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, Oct4, miR-126 and miR-149 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR. After silencing syndecan-1, miR-126, and/or miR-149 in the PC3 cells, cell proliferation, senescence, and p21 induction were assessed using the MTS assay, senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) assay, and immunocytochemistry, respectively. Compared to the Du145 and LNCaP cells, PC3 cells exhibited higher expression of syndecan-1. When syndecan-1 was silenced, the PC3 cells showed reduced expression of miR-126 and miR-149 most effectively. Suppression of miR-126 and/or miR-149 significantly inhibited cell growth via p21 induction and subsequently, induced senescence. The mRNA expression levels of SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4 were significantly increased in response to the silencing of miR-126 and/or miR-149. Our results suggest that miR-126 and miR-149 are associated with the expression of syndecan-1 in prostate cancer cells. These miRNAs promote cell proliferation by suppressing SOX2, NANOG, and Oct4. The regulation of these factors by miR-126 and miR-149 is essential for syndecan-1-mediated development of androgen-refractory prostate cancer.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2014; 456(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.11.056 · 2.30 Impact Factor
"c o m / l o c a t e / y b b r c silencing of target genes . The last decade has witnessed the emergence of microRNAs as strategic players in diverse cellular processes, including development, differentiation, proliferation, migration, stress response, angiogenesis, cell death, and carcinogenesis      . While miRNAs are linked to a variety of pathological conditions such as neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic diseases, research studies on the role of miRNAs in wound healing is relatively new and few   . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFβ1) is a pleiotropic growth factor with a very broad spectrum of effects on wound healing. Chronic non-healing wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers express reduced levels of TGFβ1. On the other hand, our previous studies have shown that the microRNA miR-21 is differentially regulated in diabetic wounds and that it promotes migration of fibroblast cells. Although interplay between TGFβ1 and miR-21 are studied in relation to cancer, their interaction in the context of chronic wounds has not yet been investigated. In this study, we examined if TGFβ1 could stimulate miR-21 in fibroblasts that are subjected to high glucose environment. MiR-21 was, in fact, induced by TGFβ1 in high glucose conditions. The induction by TGFβ1 was dependent on NFκB activation and subsequent ROS generation. TGFβ1 was instrumental in degrading the NFκB inhibitor IκBα and facilitating the nuclear translocation of NFκB p65 subunit. EMSA studies showed enhanced DNA binding activity of NFκB in the presence of TGFβ1. ChIP assay revealed binding of p65 to miR-21 promoter. NFκB activation was also required for the nuclear translocation of Smad 4 protein and subsequent direct interaction of Smad proteins with primary miR-21 as revealed by RNA-IP studies. Our results show that manipulation of TGFβ1–NFκB–miR-21 pathway could serve as an innovative approach towards therapeutics to heal diabetic ulcers.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; 451(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.08.035 · 2.30 Impact Factor
"MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved, small, noncoding RNA molecules that control the translation and transcription of many genes , . Numerous studies have revealed that miRNA plays an important role in the initiation and progression of human diseases ,  and many other physiological processes , , such as immune responses, cell proliferation, cell death, and inflammation. As inflammation is also known to be regulated by NF-κB , many researchers have begun to examine the convergence of miRNAs and their target genes with NF-κB signaling cascades. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis japonica is a serious tropical parasitic disease in humans, which causes inflammation and fibrosis of the liver. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are known to play an important role in schistosome-induced fibrosis, but their role in schistosome-induced inflammation is still largely unknown. Here, we use a murine model of schistosomiasis japonica to investigate the role that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a critical mediator of inflammatory responses, plays in schistosome-induced inflammation. We revealed that NF-κB was significantly activated in HSCs at the early stage of infection, but not at later stages. We also show that the expression levels of several chemokines regulated by NF-κB signaling (Ccl2, Ccl3 and Ccl5) were similarly elevated at early infection. TLR4 signaling, one of the strongest known inducers of NF-κB activation, seemed not activated in HSCs post-infection. Importantly, we found that levels of miR-146 (a known negative regulator of NF-κB signaling) in HSCs opposed those of NF-κB signaling, elevating at later stage of infection. These results indicate that HSCs might play an important role in the progression of hepatic schistosomiasis japonica by linking liver inflammation to fibrosis via NF-κB signaling. Moreover, our work suggests that miR-146 appeared to regulate this process. These findings are significant and imply that manipulating the function of HSCs by targeting either NF-κB signaling or miR-146 expression may provide a novel method of treating hepatic schistosomiasis japonica.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104323. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104323 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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