The FMR1 premutation and reproduction.

Intramural Research Program, Section on Women's Health Research, Developmental Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1103, USA.
Fertility and sterility (Impact Factor: 4.3). 03/2007; 87(3):456-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.09.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To update clinicians on the reproductive implications of premutations in FMR1 (fragile X mental retardation 1). Fragile X syndrome, a cause of mental retardation and autism, is due to a full mutation (>200 CGG repeats). Initially, individuals who carried the premutation (defined as more than 55 but less than 200 CGG repeats) were not considered at risk for any clinical disorders. It is now recognized that this was incorrect, specifically with respect to female reproduction.
Literature review and consensus building at two multidisciplinary scientific workshops.
Convincing evidence now relates the FMR1 premutation to altered ovarian function and loss of fertility. An FMR1 mRNA gain-of-function toxicity may underlie this altered ovarian function. There are major gaps in knowledge regarding the natural history of the altered ovarian function in women who carry the FMR1 premutation, making counseling about reproductive plans a challenge. Women with premature ovarian failure are at increased risk of having an FMR1 premutation and should be informed of the availability of fragile X testing. Specialists in reproductive medicine can provide a supportive environment in which to explain the implications of FMR1 premutation testing, facilitate access to testing, and make appropriate referral to genetic counselors.

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    ABSTRACT: This manuscript describes the 6 year evolution of our center's research into ovarian functions of the FMR1 gene, which led to the identification of a new normal CGGn range of 26-34. This "new" normal range, in turn, led to definitions of different alleles (haplotypes) based on whether no, one or both alleles are within range. Specific alleles then were demonstrated to represent distinct ovarian aging patterns, suggesting an important FMR1 function in follicle recruitment and ovarian depletion of follicles. So called low alleles, characterized by CGGn<26, appear associated with most significant negative effects on reproductive success. Those include occult primary ovarian insufficiency (OPOI), characterized by prematurely elevated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and prematurely low anti-Müllerian hormone, and significantly reduced clinical pregnancy rates in association with in vitro fertilization (IVF) in comparison to women with normal (norm) and high (CGGn>34) alleles. Because low FMR1 alleles present in approximately 25% of all females, FMR1 testing at young ages may offer an opportunity for earlier diagnosis of OPOI than current practice allows. Earlier diagnosis of OPOI, in turn, would give young women the options of reassessing their reproductive schedules and/or pursue fertility preservation via oocyte cryopreservation when most effective.
    Frontiers in Genetics 08/2014; 5:284. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2014.00284
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    ABSTRACT: Primary ovarian insufficiency is one of the main causes of female infertility owing to an abnormal ovarian reserve. Its relevance has increased in more recent years due to the fact that age of motherhood is being delayed in developed countries, with the risk of having either primary ovarian insufficiency or less chances of pregnancy when women consider the option of having their first baby. Several exogenous factors can lead to this event, such us viral infections, metabolomic dysfunction, autoimmune diseases, and environmental or iatrogenic factors, although in most cases the mechanism that leads to the disorder is unknown. Genetic factors represent the most commonly identified cause and the impact of sex chromosome abnormalities (e.g., Turner syndrome or X structural abnormalities), autosomal and X-linked mutations on the genesis of primary ovarian insufficiency has also been well described. Yet in most cases, the genetic origin remains unknown and there are multiple candidate genes. This review aims to collect all the genetic abnormalities and genes associated with syndromic and non syndromic primary ovarian insufficiency that have been published in the literature to date using the candidate-gene approach and a genome-wide analysis.
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    ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of intellectual disability and it is characterized by a CGG expansion of more than 200 repeats in the FMR1 gene, leading to methylation of the promoter and gene silencing. The fragile X premutation, characterized by a 55 to 200 CGG repeat expansion, causes health problems and developmental difficulties in some, but not all, carriers. The premutation causes primary ovarian insufficiency in approximately 20% of females, psychiatric problems (including depression and/or anxiety) in approximately 50% of carriers and a neurodegenerative disorder, the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), in approximately 40% of males and 16% of females later in life. Recent clinical studies in premutation carriers have expanded the health problems that may be seen. Advances in the molecular pathogenesis of the premutation have shown significant mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in neurons which may be amenable to treatment. Here we review the clinical problems of carriers and treatment recommendations.
    01/2014; 3. DOI:10.4172/2168-975X.1000119


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