A controlled family study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette's disorder
ABSTRACT Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with Tourette's disorder (TD), it is unclear whether they have a common genetic etiology. Familial relationships between DSM-IV ADHD and TD are studied in TD+ADHD, TD-only (TD-ADHD), ADHD-only (ADHD-TD), and control groups.
Case-control, direct-interview family study of 692 relatives of 75 TD+ADHD, 74 TD-only, 41 ADHD-only, and 49 control probands collected between 1999 and 2004. Age-corrected prevalence rates, odds ratios, and predictors of TD, ADHD, and OCD among relatives are estimated from blinded best-estimate diagnoses using survival Kaplan-Meier and generalized estimating equation regression analyses.
In relatives of the TD-only group, although ADHD exceeded control rates (p=.03), ADHD-TD (p=.51) rates were not increased. In the ADHD-only group, TD was increased (p=.004) but TD-ADHD rates were not increased (p=.18). Comorbid ADHD+TD diagnoses in relatives were elevated in all case groups (p<or=.03). TD in relatives predicted comorbid ADHD (p<.001), and ADHD in relatives predicted comorbid TD (p<.001). OCD in relatives predicted both ADHD (p=.002) and TD (p<.001) in relatives.
TD and ADHD are not alternate phenotypes of a single underlying genetic cause. There is an increased risk of comorbid ADHD and TD in affected families, possibly reflecting some overlapping neurobiology or pathophysiology.
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ABSTRACT: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder affecting approximately 1-3% of the population. OCD is probably an etiologically heterogeneous condition. Individuals with OCD frequently have additional psychiatric disorders concomitantly or at some time during their lifetime. Recently, some authors proposed an OCD sub-classification based on comorbidity. An important issue in assessing comorbidity is the fact that the non-response to treatment often involves the presence of comorbid conditions. Non-responsive patients are more likely to meet criteria for comorbid axis I or axis II disorders and the presence of a specific comorbid condition could be a distinguishing feature in OCD, with influence on the treatment adequacy and outcome.Frontiers in Psychiatry 12/2011; 2:70. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00070
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ABSTRACT: Tourette's disorder (TD) frequently co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). While the relationship between TD and OCD suggests that they share etiological factors, the exact relationship between TD and ADHD is less clear. The goal of the current analyses was to understand better the familial relationship between DSM-IV ADHD and TD. Direct interview diagnostic data from a case-control study of 692 relatives of 75 comorbid TD and ADHD (TD + ADHD), 74 TD without ADHD (TD Only), 41 ADHD without TD (ADHD Only), and 49 control probands were analyzed. Hierarchical loglinear modeling was used to explore association patterns between TD, ADHD, and OCD or sub-clinical OCD (OCD/OCDsub) diagnoses among the 190 affected probands and their 538 relatives. The presence of OCD or OCDsub diagnosis in a proband was associated with a significantly increased risk of comorbid TD + ADHD in his/her relatives. The finding of an association between TD, ADHD and a proband OCD/OCDsub diagnosis was unexpected. The current results suggest that TD, ADHD, and OCD symptoms have overlapping neurobiology when occurring in families of TD and/or ADHD probands.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 07/2011; 156B(5):553-60. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.b.31195
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ABSTRACT: Investigations into the genetics of child psychiatric disorders have finally begun to shed light on molecular and cellular mechanisms of psychopathology. The first strains of success in this notoriously difficult area of inquiry are the result of an increasingly sophisticated appreciation of the allelic architecture of common neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, the consolidation of large patient cohorts now beginning to reach sufficient size to power reliable studies, the emergence of genomic tools enabling comprehensive investigations of rare as well as common genetic variation, and advances in developmental neuroscience that are fueling the rapid translation of genetic findings.Neuron 10/2010; 68(2):254-69. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.10.004