Escherichia coli from urine of female patients with urinary tract infections is competent for intracellular bacterial community formation.
ABSTRACT Nearly 50% of women experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) in their lifetime. Studies with mice have revealed that uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates invade superficial umbrella cells that line the bladder, allowing them to find a safe haven and subvert clearance by innate host responses. Rapid intracellular replication results in the formation of distinctive intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs). In this study, we evaluated whether UPEC strains cultured from the urine of women and classified as causing acute cystitis, recurrent cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, or pyelonephritis could progress through the IBC cascade in a well-characterized mouse model of cystitis. Of 18 UPEC isolates collected from women, 15 formed IBCs. Variations in the size, number, and kinetics of IBC formation were observed with strains isolated from women with different clinical syndromes. Two of the three isolates that did not form IBCs when inoculated alone were able to do so when coinoculated with an isolate that was capable of generating IBCs. The mixed infections dramatically altered the behavior of the coinfecting bacteria relative to their behavior in a single infection. The study also showed that mice with five different genetic backgrounds can support IBC formation. Although UPEC isolates differ genetically in their virulence factors, the majority of UPEC isolates from different types of UTI proceed through the IBC pathway, confirming the generality of IBCs in UTI pathogenesis in mice.
Article: Effect of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on recurrent bacteriuria and bacterial persistence in mice infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: One of the more perplexing aspects of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is their high propensity to recur. It has been proposed that recurrent infections are a result of the reintroduction of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) to the urinary tract (UT); however, since a significant subset of recurrent UTIs are caused by an identical bacterial strain, it has been challenging to formally prove this hypothesis for same-strain recurrences by using epidemiologic approaches. We present data here obtained by using a mouse model of UTIs in which it was shown that 36% (5 of 14) of mice infected with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) will have at least one bacteriuric recurrence, with 21% (3 of 14) having more than one recurrence during a 6-week period after an acute UTI. Intraurethrally infected mice develop UPEC reservoirs in both their feces and their bladders. Ten days of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) therapy reduces urinary recurrences and eradicates fecal colonization, whereas 3 days of SXT treatment has no effect over a twenty-eight-day observation period despite clearing fecal colonization acutely. Interestingly, SXT is unable to eradicate bacteria from the bladder reservoir even after a 10-day treatment regimen, thus demonstrating that the bladder reservoir can persist even in the face of long-term antibiotic therapy.Infection and Immunity 01/2003; 70(12):7042-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor