Left ventricular lead electrical delay predicts response to cardiac resynchronization therapy
ABSTRACT Intracardiac electrograms can be used to guide left ventricular (LV) lead placement during implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. Although attempts often are made to ensure that the LV lead is positioned at a site of maximal electrical delay, information on whether this is useful in predicting the acute hemodynamic response and long-term clinical outcome to CRT is limited.
The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of intracardiac (electrogram) measurements made during LV lead placement in patients undergoing CRT for predicting acute hemodynamic response and long-term clinical outcome to CRT.
Seventy-one subjects with standard indications for CRT underwent electrogram measurements and echocardiograms performed in the acute phase of this study. The LV lead electrical delay was measured intraoperatively from the onset of the surface ECG QRS complex to the onset of the sensed electrogram on the LV lead, as a percentage of the baseline QRS interval. Echocardiographic assessment of the hemodynamic response to CRT was measured as an intra-individual percentage change in dP/dt over baseline (DeltadP/dt, derived from the mitral regurgitation Doppler profile) with CRT on and off. dP/dt was measurable in 48 subjects, and acute responders to CRT were defined as those with DeltadP/dt >or=25%. Long-term response was measured as a combined endpoint of hospitalization for heart failure and/or all cause mortality at 12 months. Time to the primary endpoint was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method, with comparisons made using the log rank test.
LV lead electrical delay correlated weakly with DeltadP/dt of the combined group (n = 48, r = 0.311, P = .029) but was strongly correlated with DeltadP/dt in the nonischemic subgroup (n = 20, r = 0.48, P = .027). LV lead electrical delay (%) was significantly longer in acute responders (69.6 +/- 23.9 vs 31.95 +/- 11.57, P = .002) among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. A reduced LV lead electrical delay (<50% of the QRS duration) was associated with worse clinical outcome within the entire cohort (hazard ratio: 2.7, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-6.68, P = .032) as well as when stratified into ischemic and nonischemic subgroups.
Measuring LV lead electrical delay is useful during CRT device implantation because it may help predict hemodynamic response and long-term clinical outcome.
- SourceAvailable from: Emanuele BertagliaInternational journal of cardiology 01/2014; 172(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.12.206 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Based on existing literature and some new data we propose a simple three-step strategy using the standard 12-lead ECG for patient selection and optimal delivery of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). (1) Complete LBBB with regard to the indication for CRT can probably best be identified by a QRS duration of ≥130ms for women and ≥120ms for men with the presence of mid-QRS notch-/slurring in ≥2 contiguous leads of V1, V2, V5, V6, I and aVL. (2) Left ventricular (LV) free wall pacing should result in a positive QRS complex in lead V1, with estimation of the exact LV lead position in the circumferential and apico-basal direction using lead aVF and the precordial leads, respectively. Wide and fractionated LV-paced QRS complexes may indicate pacing in scar tissue. (3) Atrioventricular and interventricular stimulation intervals may be optimized by adjusting them until precordial leads show fusion patterns between left and right ventricular activation wavefronts in the QRS complex.Journal of electrocardiology 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2014.01.007 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with heart failure. The optimal site of right ventricular (RV) stimulation in CRT has not been established. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials and observational studies comparing the mid- and long-term effects of RV apical (RVA) and non-apical (RVNA) pacing on CRT outcomes. We systematically searched the Cochrane library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for studies evaluating RVA vs. RVNA pacing in CRT with regards to left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) reduction, functional status improvement (defined as ≥1 New York Heart Association class improvement), and the clinical outcome of mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization. Effect estimates [standardized mean difference (SMD) and odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI)] were pooled using random-effect models. Twelve studies comprising 2670 patients (1655 with an apical and 1015 with a non-apical RV lead position) were included. In meta-analyses, LVESV reduction and functional status improvement were similar in patients with RVA and RVNA pacing (SMD 0.13, 95% CI: -0.24 to 0.50, P = 0.48; OR 1.08, 95% CI: 0.81 to 1.45, P = 0.60, respectively). Data regarding mortality and hospitalizations could not be pooled due to a small number of relevant studies with significant heterogeneity. Our meta-analysis suggests that in CRT patients the effects of RVA or RVNA pacing on LV remodelling and functional status are similar. Mortality and morbidity outcomes with different RV lead positions should be further assessed in randomized clinical trials. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: email@example.com.Europace 03/2015; DOI:10.1093/europace/euv048 · 3.05 Impact Factor