Arg-158 is critical in both binding the substrate and stabilizing the transition-state oxyanion for the enzymatic reaction of malonamidase E2.
ABSTRACT Malonamidase E2 (MAE2) from Bradyrhizobium japonicum is an enzyme that hydrolyzes malonamate to malonate and has a Ser-cis-Ser-Lys catalytic triad at the active site. The crystal structures of wild type and mutant MAE2 exhibited that the guanido group of Arg-158 could be involved in the binding of malonamate in which the negative charge of the carboxyl group could destabilize a negatively charged transition-state oxyanion in the enzymatic reaction. In an attempt to elucidate the specific roles of Arg-158, site-directed mutants, R158Q, R158E, and R158K, were prepared (see Table 1). The crystal structure of R158Q determined at 2.2 Angstrom resolution showed that the guanido group of Arg-158 was important for the substrate binding with the marginal structural change upon the mutation. The k(cat) value of R158Q significantly decreased by over 1500-fold and the catalytic activity of R158E could not be detected. The k(cat) value of R158K was similar to that of the wild type with the K(m) value drastically increased by 100-fold, suggesting that Lys-158 of R158K can stabilize the negative charge of the carboxylate in the substrate to some extent and contribute to the stabilization of the transition-state oxyanion, but a single amine group of Lys-158 in R158K could not precisely anchor the carboxyl group of malonamate compared with the guanido group of Arg-158. Our kinetic and structural evidences demonstrate that Arg-158 in MAE2 should be critical to both binding the substrate and stabilizing the transition-state oxyanion for the catalytic reaction of MAE2.