Squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in HIV-positive patients

Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, Scotland.
Dysphagia (Impact Factor: 2.03). 02/2007; 22(1):68-72. DOI: 10.1007/s00455-006-9034-7
Source: PubMed


Patients who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at increased risk of developing laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. This malignancy on average appears in a younger age group at a more advanced stage and has a more aggressive course in HIV patients. These patients have difficult management challenges, diagnostically, in staging, and particularly in determining the optimal treatment for each individual patient because their underlying HIV infection can markedly increase morbidity associated with active treatments. They frequently have problems associated with swallowing both before and after treatment. We present two cases that highlight difficulties in the diagnosis and management of these patients as well as post-treatment complications, with particular emphasis on swallowing problems.

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    ABSTRACT: Neoplasms associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection occur at increased frequency in patients with HIV infection/AIDS. Although laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas (LSCCs) in HIV-positive patients are uncommon, a higher incidence of this malignancy in HIV-positive patients than in the general population has been reported. As a proportion of LSCCs are associated with HPV in the general population, the clinicopathological features of a series of LSCCs developing in HIV-positive patients were evaluated to investigate the possible relationship with HPV infection, and infection with other oncogenic viruses. All HIV-positive patients with LSCC diagnosed at a single institution from 1998 to 2007 were retrospectively evaluated. The clinicopathological features were analysed and tissues were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using the short PCR fragment 10 (SPF10) primer, a highly sensitive method for HPV DNA detection. Immunohistochemical studies for HIV p24, p16(INK4a) and p53 were performed. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) were also investigated. Six out of 4987 HIV-infected patients seen in this period in the Infectious Diseases Department developed LSCC (median age 41.5 years; male to female ratio 1:1). All patients were heavy smokers and the tumours presented at an advanced clinical stage. HPV was not detected in any tumour, not even in two patients with coexisting HPV-associated gynaecological neoplasm. Staining for HIV p24 and p16(INK4a) was negative, whereas p53 was positive in half the cases. EBV and HHV-8 were also negative. LSCC developing in HIV-positive patients is an infrequent neoplasm, not usually associated with HPV infection. It develops in young, heavy smokers and presents at an advanced clinical stage.
    HIV Medicine 08/2009; 10(10):634-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2009.00737.x · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases susceptibility to opportunistic infections and viral-promoted cancers. The prevalences of HPV, herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) have not been established for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in HIV-positive patients (HIV+ HNSCC). We have observed that HIV+ HNSCC tend to contain numerous multinucleated tumor giant cells, this finding has not been described previously. The goal of this study is to test for these oncogenic viruses in a small cohort of retrospectively identified patients with HIV infection, and to compare histologically these cancers to a control group of HNSCC patients. Tumors were reviewed histologically and compared to a control group of 102 patients with HNSCC (serologically untyped or HIV negative). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded HIV+ HNSCC samples from combined 25 patients in two institutions. In situ hybridization was performed to identify EBV (EBER) and immunohistochemistry was performed to detect HSV-1, HSV-2, HHV-8, and HIV-related proteins (Nef, p24). The study sample consisted of 34 HIV+ patients with HNSCC from Montefiore Medical Center, and six HIV+ HNSCC patients from Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona; 24 (60%) men and 16 (40%) women. The larynx was most commonly involved (65%, n = 26); followed by the oropharynx (22.5%, n = 9). Four carcinomas arose from the oral cavity (10%) and one from the nasal cavity (2.5%). Histologically, multinucleated tumor giant cells were more common in the HIV+ group (39/40, 97.5%) than the control group (27/102, 26%, p 0.001, chi-square). HPV was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) HNSCC tumors by PCR, five were typed as HPV 16 and one as HPV 26/69; five of these tumors (83%) were located in the oropharynx. EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HHV-8 were detected only infrequently in tumor cells. Nef protein was detected in tumor cells in 7 of 21 (33.3%) cases; p24 was not detectable in 6 tumors studied. There were no significant associations between HPV positive tumors and co-infections with other viruses. This study is consistent with other reports that suggest an increased incidence of laryngeal carcinoma for HIV+ patients. HPV was detected in 24% of HIV+ HNSCC, however, the number of tumors with amplifiable DNA (n = 25) is too small to allow for conclusions. EBV, HSV-1, HSV-2, and HHV-8 are uncommon in HIV+ HNSCC; it is unlikely that these viruses have a promoting effect. MNTCG are significantly common in HIV+ HNSCC, but there is overlap in MNTCG counts with the control group and therefore this finding cannot be used as a biomarker of HIV infection.
    Head and Neck Pathology 03/2010; 4(2):97-105. DOI:10.1007/s12105-010-0171-9
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