Potentiation of the Effect of Erlotinib by Genistein in Pancreatic Cancer: The Role of Akt and Nuclear Factor- B

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201, USA.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 11/2006; 66(21):10553-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2333
Source: PubMed


The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a target of new therapies in most nonhematologic cancers. EGFR blockade alone may not be sufficient for the control of growth and invasion of human pancreas cancer because of the independent activation of Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). The expression of EGFR, Akt, and NF-kappaB was determined in six human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Selected cells for specific expression were treated with erlotinib, genistein, gemcitabine, or the combination. Growth inhibition was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and apoptosis was assayed by ELISA. EGFR, phosphorylated EGFR, phosphorylated Akt, and survivin expressions were determined by immunoblotting. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to evaluate the DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB. Genistein significantly increased (P < 0.05) erlotinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in BxPC-3, CAPAN-2, and AsPC-1 cells. In the BxPC-3 cell line, significant down-regulation of EGFR, phosphorylated Akt, NF-kappaB activation, and survivin was observed in the cells treated with the combination compared with the erlotinib-treated cells. In the HPAC and MIAPaCa cell line, no potentiation of the effects of erlotinib by genistein on cell growth or inhibition of the EGFR/Akt/NF-kappaB was observed. Genistein potentiated growth inhibition and apoptosis of the gemcitabine and erlotinib combination in COLO-357 cell line. Genistein potentiates the growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by erlotinib and gemcitabine in certain pancreatic cancer cells. Akt and NF-kappaB inhibition represents one of the mechanisms for the potentiation of erlotinib- and gemcitabine-induced cell death by genistein.

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    • "It is known that numerous proteins, including C-myc, Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, COX-2, Bcl-xL and Survivin, are all regulated by NF-κB at the transcriptional level and linked to chemoresistance. [11,19,47-50] showed that transfection with adenovirus IκBα super-repressor strongly inhibited constitutive activation of NF-κB and significantly enhanced 5-FU and 5-FU/Folinic acid-mediated growth inhibition. "
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    ABSTRACT: Some cancers like melanoma and pancreatic and ovarian cancers, for example, commonly display resistance to chemotherapy, and this is the major obstacle to a better prognosis of patients. Frequently, literature presents studies in monolayer cell cultures, 3D cell cultures or in vivo studies, but rarely the same work compares results of drug resistance in different models. Several of these works are presented in this review and show that usually cells in 3D culture are more resistant to drugs than monolayer cultured cells due to different mechanisms. Searching for new strategies to sensitize different tumors to chemotherapy, many methods have been studied to understand the mechanisms whereby cancer cells acquire drug resistance. These methods have been strongly advanced along the years and therapies using different drugs have been increasingly proposed to induce cell death in resistant cells of different cancers. Recently, cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been extensively studied because they would be the only cells capable of sustaining tumorigenesis. It is believed that the resistance of CSCs to currently used chemotherapeutics is a major contributing factor in cancer recurrence and later metastasis development. This review aims to appraise the experimental progress in the study of acquired drug resistance of cancer cells in different models as well as to understand the role of CSCs as the major contributing factor in cancer recurrence and metastasis development, describing how CSCs can be identified and isolated.
    Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 04/2014; 33(1):37. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-33-37 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Notably, NFκB inhibitory effect [46-55] radio-sensitizing effects [55-62] of Genistein have been well documented. To that end, Sarkar and colleagues suggested that Genistein inhibited MEKK1 kinase activity may be responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of IκBα and thereby result in the inactivation of NFκB [63-66]. Furthermore, synthetic analogue of curcumin, EF24 has shown to possess potent anticancer activity, both in vitro as well as in vivo[67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Heterogeneously distributed hypoxic areas are a characteristic property of locally advanced breast cancers (BCa) and generally associated with therapeutic resistance, metastases, and poor patient survival. About 50% of locally advanced BCa, where radiotherapy is less effective are suggested to be due to hypoxic regions. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioactive phytochemicals in radio-sensitizing hypoxic BCa cells. Methods Hypoxic (O2-2.5%; N2-92.5%; CO2-5%) MCF-7 cells were exposed to 4 Gy radiation (IR) alone or after pretreatment with Curcumin (CUR), curcumin analog EF24, neem leaf extract (NLE), Genistein (GEN), Resveratrol (RES) or raspberry extract (RSE). The cells were examined for inhibition of NFκB activity, transcriptional modulation of 88 NFκB signaling pathway genes, activation and cellular localization of radio-responsive NFκB related mediators, eNos, Erk1/2, SOD2, Akt1/2/3, p50, p65, pIκBα, TNFα, Birc-1, -2, -5 and associated induction of cell death. Results EMSA revealed that cells exposed to phytochemicals showed complete suppression of IR-induced NFκB. Relatively, cells exposed EF24 revealed a robust inhibition of IR-induced NFκB. QPCR profiling showed induced expression of 53 NFκB signaling pathway genes after IR. Conversely, 53, 50, 53, 53, 53 and 53 of IR-induced genes were inhibited with EF24, NLE, CUR, GEN, RES and RSE respectively. In addition, 25, 29, 24, 16, 11 and 21 of 35 IR-suppressed genes were further inhibited with EF24, NLE, CUR, GEN, RES and RSE respectively. Immunoblotting revealed a significant attenuating effect of IR-modulated radio-responsive eNos, Erk1/2, SOD2, Akt1/2/3, p50, p65, pIκBα, TNFα, Birc-1, -2 and −5 with EF24, NLE, CUR, GEN, RES or RSE. Annexin V-FITC staining showed a consistent and significant induction of IR-induced cell death with these phytochemicals. Notably, EF24 robustly conferred IR-induced cell death. Conclusions Together, these data identifies the potential hypoxic cell radio-sensitizers and further implies that the induced radio-sensitization may be exerted by selectively targeting IR-induced NFκB signaling.
    Radiation Oncology 03/2013; 8(1):46. DOI:10.1186/1748-717X-8-46 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and attenuation of Akt pathways by genistein have been shown in various cancer types [13–16]. NF-κB not only controls the expression of genes involved in survival and proliferation, but also plays a key role in apoptosis [17]. Moreover, NF-κB inhibition in tumor cells may result in increased activity of topoisomerase II inhibitors and, hence, this inhibition can be used in anticancer therapy [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is among the top causes of death from cancer in women. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been shown to improve survival; however, cisplatin treatment is associated with toxicity to healthy cells. Genistein has been used as an adjunct to chemotherapy to enhance the activity of chemotherapeutic agents without causing increased toxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of genistein (25 μM) on antitumor activity of cisplatin (250 nM) on HeLa cervical cancer cells. We have examined the alterations in expression of NF-κB, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K1, p-4E-BP1, and p-Akt protein levels in response to treatment. The combination of 25 μM genistein with 250 nM cisplatin resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition (P < 0.01). Genistein enhanced the antitumor activity of cisplatin and reduced the expression of NF-κB, p-mTOR, p-p70S6K1, p-4E-BP1, and p-Akt. The results in the present study suggest that genistein could enhance the activity of cisplatin via inhibition of NF-κB and Akt/mTOR pathways. Genistein is a promising nontoxic nutritional agent that may enhance treatment outcome in cervical cancer patients when given concomitantly with cisplatin. Clinical trials of genistein and cisplatin combination are warranted to test this hypothesis.
    Journal of Oncology 09/2012; 2012(5):461562. DOI:10.1155/2012/461562
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