Signal transducing adaptor molecule (STAM) complexed with hepatocyte growth factor regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) works on sorting of cargo proteins in multivesicular body (MVB) pathway. Associated molecule with SH3 domain of STAM (AMSH), a zinc-containing ubiquitin isopeptidase, is thought to play a role in regulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation by binding to STAM. We have found that AMSH requires the conformation of Px(V/I)(D/N)RxxKP sequence to bind SH3 domain of STAM with approximately 7 microM affinity, and that the isolated C-terminal domain of AMSH contains the isopeptidase activity. Deubiquitination by AMSH was assisted when ubiquitins were bound to STAM which can bind to AMSH simultaneously. With the specificity toward K63-linked ubiquitins, this facilitated ubiquitin processing activity of AMSH may imply a distinct regulatory mechanism for sorting and degradation through STAM binding.
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"Results from numerous studies in cultured cells have shown that the Hrs/Stam complex is required for attenuation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EFGR) signaling and suggested a general function in RTK down regulation. However, the Stam protein was reported to interact with deubiquitination enzymes , , raising the possibility that it can also contribute, in interaction with or independently of Hrs, to disengagement of the cargo from the degradation pathway. Therefore, the full deciphering of the role of Hrs and Stam requires in vivo analysis of their respective function during the different processes that are regulated by signalling pathways during development. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocytosis is a key regulatory step of diverse signalling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signalling. Hrs and Stam constitute the ESCRT-0 complex that controls the initial selection of ubiquitinated proteins, which will subsequently be degraded in lysosomes. It has been well established ex vivo and during Drosophila embryogenesis that Hrs promotes EGFR down regulation. We have recently isolated the first mutations of stam in flies and shown that Stam is required for air sac morphogenesis, a larval respiratory structure whose formation critically depends on finely tuned levels of FGFR activity. This suggest that Stam, putatively within the ESCRT-0 complex, modulates FGF signalling, a possibility that has not been examined in Drosophila yet.
Here, we assessed the role of the Hrs/Stam complex in the regulation of signalling activity during Drosophila development. We show that stam and hrs are required for efficient FGFR signalling in the tracheal system, both during cell migration in the air sac primordium and during the formation of fine cytoplasmic extensions in terminal cells. We find that stam and hrs mutant cells display altered FGFR/Btl localisation, likely contributing to impaired signalling levels. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that endosome maturation is impaired at distinct steps by hrs and stam mutations. These somewhat unexpected results prompted us to further explore the function of stam and hrs in EGFR signalling. We show that while stam and hrs together downregulate EGFR signalling in the embryo, they are required for full activation of EGFR signalling during wing development.
Our study shows that the ESCRT-0 complex differentially regulates RTK signalling, either positively or negatively depending on tissues and developmental stages, further highlighting the importance of endocytosis in modulating signalling pathways during development.
PLoS ONE 04/2010; 5(4):e10245. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0010245 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is a fast and robust method to determine the energetics of association reactions in solution. The changes in enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity that accompany binding provide unique insights into the balance of forces driving association of molecular entities. ITC is used nowadays on a day-to-day basis in hundreds of laboratories. The method aids projects both in basic and practice-oriented research ranging from medicine and biochemistry to physical chemistry and material sciences. Not surprisingly, the range of studies utilizing ITC data is steadily expanding. In this review, we discuss selected results and ideas that have accumulated in the course of the year 2006, the focus being on biologically relevant systems. Theoretical developments, novel applications and studies that provide a deeper level of understanding of the energetic principles of biological function are primarily considered. Following the appearance of a new generation of titration calorimeters, recent papers provide instructive examples of the synergy between energetic and structural approaches in biomedical and biotechnological research.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein modification by ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like molecules is a critical regulatory process. Like most regulated protein modifications, ubiquitination is reversible. Deubiquitination, the reversal of ubiquitination, is quickly being recognized as an important regulatory strategy. Nearly one hundred human DUBs (deubiquitinating enzymes) in five different gene families oppose the action of several hundred ubiquitin ligases, suggesting that both ubiquitination and its reversal are highly regulated and specific processes. It has long been recognized that ubiquitin ligases are modular enzyme systems that often depend on scaffolds and adaptors to deliver substrates to the catalytically active macromolecular complex. Although many DUBs bind ubiquitin with reasonable affinities (in the nM to microM range), a larger number have little affinity but exhibit robust catalytic capability. Thus it is apparent that these DUBs must acquire their substrates by binding the target protein in a conjugate or by associating with other macromolecular complexes. We would then expect that a study of protein partners of DUBs would reveal a variety of substrates, scaffolds, adaptors and ubiquitin receptors. In the present review we suggest that, like ligases, much of the regulation and specificity of deubiquitination arises from the association of DUBs with these protein partners.