Detection of cytomegalovirus in human placental cells by polymerase chain reaction.
ABSTRACT Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infection. Progress in rapid, specific, and dependable detection of HCMV has recently been achieved by the use of DNA hybridization techniques and other molecular methods. We examined 21 placentas after delivery for the presence of HCMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To test the reliability of the PCR for the detection of HCMV DNA in clinical specimens, two simple PCR assays and a real-time quantitative PCR were used. PCR analysis of villous and decidual cells showed that HCMV DNA was present in 16 placentas (76.2%). Transmission of HCMV infection to chorionic villi was confirmed in 11 organs (52.4%), and congenital infections in newborns were detected in 9 cases (42.8%). These results suggest that HCMV genome detection in placentas at later gestational ages is common. Our results demonstrated that detection of HCMV DNA in placental tissues by DNA amplification provides a specific and sensitive method for diagnosis of intrauterine HCMV infection.
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ABSTRACT: During human gestation, viruses can cause intrauterine infections associated with pregnancy complications and fetal abnormalities. The ability of viruses to spread from the infected mother to the fetus arises from the architecture of the placenta, which anchors the fetus to the uterus. Placental cytotrophoblasts differentiate, assume an endothelial phenotype, breach uterine blood vessels and form a hybrid vasculature that amplifies the maternal blood supply for fetal development. Human cytomegalovirus - the major cause of congenital disease - infects the uterine wall and the adjacent placenta, suggesting adaptation for pathogen survival in this microenvironment. Infection of villus explants and differentiating and/or invading cytotrophoblasts offers an in vitro model for studying viruses associated with prenatal infections.Trends in Microbiology 05/2005; 13(4):164-74. · 8.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly purified functional cytotrophoblasts have been prepared from human term placentae by adding a Percoll gradient centrifugation step to a standard trypsin-DNase dispersion method. The isolated mononuclear trophoblasts averaged 10 microns in diameter, with occasional cells measuring up to 20-30 microns. Viability was greater than 90%. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the cells had fine structural features typical of trophoblasts. In contrast to syncytial trophoblasts of intact term placentae, these cells did not stain for hCG, human placental lactogen, pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein or low mol wt cytokeratins by immunoperoxidase methods. Endothelial cells, fibroblasts, or macrophages did not contaminate the purified cytotrophoblasts, as evidenced by the lack of immunoperoxidase staining with antibodies against vimentin or alpha 1-antichymotrypsin. The cells produced progesterone (1 ng/10(6) cells . 4 h), and progesterone synthesis was stimulated up to 8-fold in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol (20 micrograms/ml). They also produced estrogens (1360 pg/10(6) cells . 4 h) when supplied with androstenedione (1 ng/ml) as a precursor. When placed in culture, the cytotrophoblasts consistently formed aggregates, which subsequently transformed into syncytia within 24-48 h after plating. Time lapse cinematography revealed that this process occurred by cell fusion. The presumptive syncytial groups were proven to be true syncytia by microinjection of fluorescently labeled alpha-actinin, which diffused completely throughout the syncytial cytoplasm within 30 min. Immunoperoxidase staining of cultured trophoblasts between 3.5 and 72 h after plating revealed a progressive increase in cytoplasmic pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein, hCG, and human placental lactogen concomitant with increasing numbers of aggregates and syncytia. At all time points examined, occasional single cells positive for these markers were identified. RIA of the spent culture media for hCG revealed a significant increase in secreted hCG, paralleling the increase in hCG-positive cells and syncytia identified by immunoperoxidase methods. We conclude that human cytotrophoblasts differentiate in culture and fuse to form functional syncytiotrophoblasts.Endocrinology 05/1986; 118(4):1567-82. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral intra-uterine infection. The experience with prenatal diagnosis remains limited and is based on few reports of small numbers of cases. It is thus difficult to compare the accuracy of the different tests because the groups studied were small and heterogeneous. We describe here our experience on a series of 98 pregnancies leading to HCMV congenital infection, among which 71 have been tested by amniotic fluid (AF) sampling followed by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Independently of the delay between AF sampling and the first HCMV IgM positive result, the mean sensitivity of both culture and PCR was around 70 per cent. The best sensitivity (95.5 per cent) was obtained after a delay > or = 6 weeks in late pregnancy (> or = 23 weeks). The present study demonstrated clearly that the delay between AF puncture and the presumed date of seroconversion is more important for sensitivity than the technique used for the diagnosis (PCR or culture). However, even in the best diagnostic conditions, negative results of HCMV culture or PCR in AF cannot formally exclude intra-uterine infection.Prenatal Diagnosis 04/1999; 19(4):314-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor