Detection of cytomegalovirus in human placental cells by polymerase chain reaction

Center for Medical Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Biological Chemistry, Lódź, Poland.
Apmis (Impact Factor: 2.04). 12/2006; 114(11):764-71. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2006.apm_31.x
Source: PubMed


Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infection. Progress in rapid, specific, and dependable detection of HCMV has recently been achieved by the use of DNA hybridization techniques and other molecular methods. We examined 21 placentas after delivery for the presence of HCMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To test the reliability of the PCR for the detection of HCMV DNA in clinical specimens, two simple PCR assays and a real-time quantitative PCR were used. PCR analysis of villous and decidual cells showed that HCMV DNA was present in 16 placentas (76.2%). Transmission of HCMV infection to chorionic villi was confirmed in 11 organs (52.4%), and congenital infections in newborns were detected in 9 cases (42.8%). These results suggest that HCMV genome detection in placentas at later gestational ages is common. Our results demonstrated that detection of HCMV DNA in placental tissues by DNA amplification provides a specific and sensitive method for diagnosis of intrauterine HCMV infection.

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    • "Since the late 1990s, quantitation of HCMV DNA load by real-time PCR assays has become the most widely used diagnostic tool (Sia et al., 2000; Atkinson & Emery, 2011; Mengelle et al., 2011; Khansarinejad et al., 2012). This is a rapid, efficient and sensitive method for determination of HCMV viremia level in newborns and HCMV viral copy number in amniotic fluid and placental cells, as well as urine and saliva samples from pregnant women with active HCMV infections and their newborns within the first week of birth (Paradowska et al., 2006, 2012; Ducroux et al., 2008; Kouri et al., 2010). The assessment of HCMV viremia level in pregnant women and their newborns is significant for early identification of the primary infections in these patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: TLRs play crucial role in non-specific immunity against various infections. The most common intrauterine infection is caused by HCMV, which result in perinatal morbidity and mortality of primary infected fetuses. The induction of immune response by TLRs was observed in HCMV infections in murine models and cell lines cultured in vitro. Studies reported immunological response in pregnant women primary infected with HCMV and TLR2 activity in collecting HCMV particles in placental ST in vivo and cultured ST and in stimulation of TNF-α expression and damage of villous trophoblast. Expression levels of TLRs associate with cell types, stage of pregnancy and response to microorganisms. In the article we showed the effect of HCMV infection on pregnancy development as well as TLR SNPs on the occurrence and course of infectious diseases, immune response and pregnancy diseases. We reported the impact of TLRs on the function of miRNAs and the altered expression levels of these molecules, observed in HCMV infections. We suggested that methylation status of TLR gene promoter regions as epigenetic modifications might be significant in immune response to HCMV infections. We concluded that it is important to study in details molecular mechanisms of TLRs function in immune response to HCMV infections in pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Pathogens and Disease 08/2013; 70(1). DOI:10.1111/2049-632X.12083 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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    • "The agreement of the local ethical committees as well as written maternal informed consent were obtained. Infections with CMV were diagnosed within 3 weeks of birth from symptoms, serological investigations (the presence of specific IgM/IgA) and/or detection of viral genome using quantitative real-time PCR (as described by Paradowska et al. (2006)). When samples were obtained from twin pregnancies (n = 13), only one from each family was used for this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of congenital infections among neonates. About 10% of newborns with such an infection have clinical symptoms at birth and about 1% of infected fetuses die due to developmental malformations. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is considered to be an important factor in innate immunity. Its deficiency is believed to predispose to various (including viral) infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of MBL2 gene polymorphisms in prenatal and perinatal CMV infections. The frequencies of MBL2 gene exon 1 mutations as well as MBL deficiency-associated variants (LXPA/O+O/O) among newborns with confirmed cytomegalovirus infection were not significantly lower than among non-infected individuals. The distribution of MBL2 haplotypes was similar between the groups studied. These data suggest MBL does not have a major influence on susceptibility to prenatal or perinatal CMV infections.
    Molecular Immunology 06/2011; 48(15-16):2203-6. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2011.06.220 · 2.97 Impact Factor
  • Conference Paper: The Italian 2003 blackout
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    ABSTRACT: On September 28th, 2003, at 3:01 a.m., a fault on the Swiss power system caused the overloading of two Swiss internal lines close to the Italian border. The interconnection lines were heavily loaded by the large power import and the coordination between the system operators was not sufficient to mitigate the overload. The consequent loss of those important branches caused cascading outages of the lines interconnecting the Italian system and the remaining part of the UCTE (Union for the Coordination of the Transmission of Electricity) system. This resulted in a very sudden loss of synchronism between the Italian system and the UCTE grids, causing the loss of the whole import. The consequent power unbalance caused the frequency in Italy to decline; the automatic load shedding procedure was not able to shed load enough to balance the generation and the load, and this resulted in the blackout. The paper provides a short description of the pre-fault system operation and of the main events that triggered the blackout, identifying some of the main causes that resulted in the separation of the Italian system and the blackout. In addition, issues related to the misoperation of the Italian automatic procedure to prevent the blackout are discussed.
    Power Engineering Society General Meeting, 2004. IEEE; 07/2004
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