An investigation of the von Willebrand factor genotype in UK patients diagnosed to have type 1 von Willebrand disease.
ABSTRACT Forty families diagnosed by UK centres to have type 1 VWD were recruited. Following review, six families were re-diagnosed to have type 2 VWD, one to have a platelet storage pool disorder, and one family was determined to be unaffected. Direct DNA sequencing of the promoter region and all exons and intronic boundaries of the VWF gene identified six mutations likely to be causative of VWD in index cases of nine of the 32 (28%) confirmed type 1 VWD families. These included R1205H (3614G > A) VWD Vicenza, P1648fsX45 (4944delT), D141G (422A > G) and three splice site mutations: 3108 + 5G > A, 7437 + 1G > A and 3379 + 1G > A. The Y1584C (4751A > G) polymorphism was present in eight additional families. No significant VWF gene mutation or polymorphism was identified in 15 of the 32 type 1VWD index cases (47%). Haplotype studies were performed using a panel of VWF polymorphisms to investigate the segregation in families of VWD phenotype with the VWF gene. In 13 of the 32 families it was likely that VWD segregated with the VWF gene. In eight families (25%) VWD clearly did not segregate with the VWF gene. We suggest that mutation screening of the VWF gene has limited general utility in genetic diagnostic and family studies in type 1 VWD. If genetic studies are performed, the incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of type 1 VWD must be taken into account. Unless linkage of VWD phenotype with the VWF gene can be clearly demonstrated, the results of any genetic family studies should be interpreted with caution.
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Article: Type 1 von Willebrand disease.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Since its first description in 1926, the precise nature and indeed significance of von Willebrand factor (VWD) in the area of human bleeding has been unsure and often controversial. The recognition of VWD as a distinct entity in blood and the cloning of the von Willebrand factor (VWF) gene in the 1980s encouraged both phenotypic and genotypic studies, culminating in 1994 with the recognition, by the VWF subcommittee of the Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) of International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasy (ISTH), of three types of VWD, characterized by severe plasma VWF deficiency (type 3), functionally deficient plasma VWF (type 2) and reduced (below normal) levels of plasma VWF, which is functionally essentially normal (type 1; 70% of all cases). Since then, whereas gene analysis has recognized VWF gene (VWF) mutations in most individuals with type 3 and type 2 disease, the latter mutations correlating well with recognized functional domains within the VWF protein, few mutations have been reported in cases with type 1 VWD. This led to speculation that other factors, particularly ABO blood group, may be primarily responsible for the majority of such patients, perhaps combined with a generic bleeding tendency throughout the normal population. Recent large studies in Europe and Canada have considerably clarified this situation, revealing that the majority of type 1 VWD is associated with mutations within VWF. The role of these mutations in the aetiology of the disease opens up new approaches to the study of the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Conversely, the lack of a change in the VWF gene in many recruited families will lead to enhanced efforts to identify non-VWF gene causes both at the genetic and epigenetic level.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 07/2007; 5 Suppl 1:7-11. · 6.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following the recognition of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in 1926 and the cloning of the gene for von Willebrand factor (VWF) in 1985, significant advances have been made in our fundamental knowledge of both the disease and the protein. Some of this new knowledge has also begun to impact the clinical management of VWD. First, the progressive increase in our understanding of the molecular genetic basis of VWD has resulted in rational applications of molecular testing to complement the current range of phenotypic tests for VWD. These molecular genetic strategies are most effectively directed at the prenatal diagnosis of type 3 VWD and confirmatory testing for types 2B and 2N disease. In contrast, the use of molecular testing to clarify the diagnosis of type 1 VWD is of marginal benefit, at best. In terms of VWD therapies, a new recombinant VWF concentrate has recently completed successful clinical trials and is now awaiting more widespread application. There have even been some preclinical successes with VWF gene transfer although the clinical rationale for this therapeutic strategy needs careful consideration. Much more remains to be learnt about the biology of VWF and further translational advances for the enhancement of VWD care will inevitably be realized.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 06/2013; 11(s1). · 6.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe development of an automated, von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity assay, Innovance® VWF Ac (VWF:Ac), which measures VWF binding to the platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα without ristocetin, led us to evaluate the assay for diagnosing von Willebrand disease (VWD) and monitoring therapy.Methods After validating that the assay could be performed on an instrument from a different manufacturer, we compared VWF:Ac to VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) findings, including ratios of activity/antigen, for 100 healthy controls and 262 consecutive clinical samples from 217 patients (197 adults, 64 children, n = 1 age unknown) referred for VWF testing.ResultsThere was excellent correlation (R2 = 0.96) between VWF:Ac results run at two different sites on two different instruments. VWF:Ac had greater precision and sensitivity to low levels of VWF than the VWF:RCo method. Although there was good correlation between VWF:Ac and VWF:RCo results among healthy controls and patient subjects, VWF:Ac results were undetectable and/or significantly lower than VWF:RCo among patients who had types 2A, 2B, or 2M VWD. Additionally, a higher proportion of patient samples were classified as showing qualitative defects using the VWF:Ac compared with VWF:RCo method. While most samples drawn on VWD therapy had similar VWF levels by VWF:Ac and VWF:RCo, a type 2B VWD subject on replacement had much lower activity estimated by VWF:Ac.Conclusion We conclude that Innovance® VWF Ac is suitable for the diagnosis, classification, and monitoring of VWD, and that it has a number of advantages over VWF:RCo method.International journal of laboratory hematology 06/2014; 36(3). · 1.30 Impact Factor