An investigation of the von Willebrand factor genotype in UK patients diagnosed to have type 1 von Willebrand disease.
ABSTRACT Forty families diagnosed by UK centres to have type 1 VWD were recruited. Following review, six families were re-diagnosed to have type 2 VWD, one to have a platelet storage pool disorder, and one family was determined to be unaffected. Direct DNA sequencing of the promoter region and all exons and intronic boundaries of the VWF gene identified six mutations likely to be causative of VWD in index cases of nine of the 32 (28%) confirmed type 1 VWD families. These included R1205H (3614G > A) VWD Vicenza, P1648fsX45 (4944delT), D141G (422A > G) and three splice site mutations: 3108 + 5G > A, 7437 + 1G > A and 3379 + 1G > A. The Y1584C (4751A > G) polymorphism was present in eight additional families. No significant VWF gene mutation or polymorphism was identified in 15 of the 32 type 1VWD index cases (47%). Haplotype studies were performed using a panel of VWF polymorphisms to investigate the segregation in families of VWD phenotype with the VWF gene. In 13 of the 32 families it was likely that VWD segregated with the VWF gene. In eight families (25%) VWD clearly did not segregate with the VWF gene. We suggest that mutation screening of the VWF gene has limited general utility in genetic diagnostic and family studies in type 1 VWD. If genetic studies are performed, the incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity of type 1 VWD must be taken into account. Unless linkage of VWD phenotype with the VWF gene can be clearly demonstrated, the results of any genetic family studies should be interpreted with caution.
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ABSTRACT: During the past 25 years, our knowledge concerning the pathogenesis, diagnostic strategies, and treatment of von Willebrand disease (VWD) has increased significantly. Following the immunological differentiation of factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) in the 1970s and the cloning of the FVIII and VWF genes in the mid-1980s, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of this, the most common inherited bleeding disorder. We now recognize that VWD represents a range of genetic diseases all with the clinical endpoint of increased mucocutaneous bleeding. The molecular pathology of Type 2 and 3 VWD is now comprehensively documented and involves rare sequence variants at the VWF locus. In contrast, the genetic causation of Type 1 disease remains incompletely defined and in many cases appears to involve genetic determinants in addition to or instead of VWF. The diagnostic triad of a personal history of excessive mucocutaneous bleeding, laboratory tests for VWF that are consistent with VWD, and a family history of the condition remain the keystone to VWD identification. In the laboratory, measurement of VWF antigen and function continue to be the most important diagnostic studies, and while our understanding of the molecular genetic pathology of VWD has advanced considerably in the past decade, genetic testing as a component of diagnosis is limited to certain distinct subtypes of the disorder. Treatment of VWD has been relatively unchanged for the past decade and continues to involve either stimulation of the release of intrinsic VWF with desmopressin or the infusion of VWF concentrates.American Journal of Hematology 02/2012; 87 Suppl 1:S4-11. · 4.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Von Willebrand disease (VWD) is the most common inherited bleeding disorder caused by quantitative or qualitative defects of the von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWD is classified into three types - type 1 (partial quantitative deficiencies), type 2 (qualitative defects) and type 3 (complete deficiency of VWF). In this study we explored genotype and phenotype characteristics of patients with VWD with the aim of dissecting the distribution of mutations in different types of VWD. One hundred fourteen patients belonging to 78 families diagnosed to have VWD were studied. Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of the VWF . Large deletions were investigated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis. The impact of novel candidate missense mutations and potential splice site mutations was predicted by in silico assessments. We identified mutations in 66 index patients (IPs) (84.6%). Mutation detection rate was 68%, 94% and 94% for VWD type 1, 2 and 3, respectively. In total, 68 different putative mutations were detected comprising 37 missense mutations (54.4%), 10 small deletions (14.7%), two small insertions (2.9%), seven nonsense mutations (10.3%), five splice-site mutations (7.4%), six large deletions (8.8%) and one silent mutation (1.5%). Twenty-six of these mutations were novel. Furthermore, in type 1 and type 2 VWD, the majority of identified mutations (74% vs. 88.1%) were missense substitutions while mutations in type 3 VWD mostly caused null alleles (82%). Genotyping in VWD is a helpful tool to further elucidate the pathogenesis of VWD and to establish the relationship between genotype and phenotype.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2012; 108(4):662-71. · 6.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in coagulation by tethering platelets to injured subendothelium through binding sites for collagen and platelet GPIb. Collagen binding assays (VWF:CB), however, are not part of the routine work-up for von Willebrand disease (VWD). This study presents data on collagen binding for healthy controls and VWD subjects to compare three different collagens. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity and VWF:CB with types I, III and VI collagen were examined for samples obtained from the Zimmerman Program. Mean VWF:CB in healthy controls was similar and highly correlated for types I, III and VI collagen. The mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen were 1.31, 1.19 and 1.21, respectively. In type 1 VWD subjects, VWF:CB was similar to VWF:Ag with mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen of 1.32, 1.08 and 1.1, respectively. For type 2A and 2B subjects, VWF:CB was uniformly low, with mean ratios of 0.62 and 0.7 for type I collagen, 0.38 and 0.4 for type III collagen, and 0.5 and 0.47 for type VI collagen. Normal ranges for type I, III and VI collagen are correlated, but higher values were obtained with type I collagen as compared with types III and VI. The low VWF:CB in type 2A and 2B subjects suggests that VWF:CB may also supplement analysis of multimer distribution. However, these results reflect only one set of assay conditions per collagen type and therefore may not be generalizable to all collagen assays.Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 04/2012; 10(7):1425-32. · 6.08 Impact Factor